Tuesday, August 28, 2012

IFV (Marder)

The IFV (IFV) raccoon is the main weapon system of armored infantry units of the Bundeswehr . In use are the Marder 1A3, 1A4 and 1A5. As the successor of the Marder IFV is Puma developed.

Marder 1A3
Marder 1A3 mit montierter MILAN
Ausgerüstet zum Verschießen von Manövermunition
Allgemeine Eigenschaften
3 + 7 (Marder 1)
3 + 6 (ab Marder 1A1)
6,88 m
3,38 m
3,015 m
33,5 Tonnen
Panzerung und Bewaffnung
gewalzter Panzerstahl
Zusatzpanzerung in Schottbauweise
20-mm-Maschinenkanone MK 20 RH 202
MG3, MILAN-Panzerabwehrwaffe,Nebelmittelwurfanlage
V6-90°-Viertakt-Dieselmotor MTUMB 833 Ea-500
441 kW (600 PS)
ca. 65 km/h (Straße)
15,6 kW/t (bis 1A2)
13,2 kW/t (1A3)
500 km Straße
200 km Gelände



The project was already marten in September 1959 during the incipient stage of the production HS 30 . The aim was to provide an "equivalent" to the armored Leopard 1 to develop. The ATV staff (training, engineering, testing) of the Armoured Troops School Munster created the military demands with the following features:
  • Absitzstärke increased by 12 men
  • high potential for protection of the crew
  • high mobility, driving range Leopard a 1 equal
  • a reliable 20-mm machine cannon
  • straightforward exchange between on-and abgesessenem fight
  • NBC
Moreover, it was intended to create an armored family, on the Kanonenjagdpanzer, Jagdpanzer missiles, 120 mm mortar vehicle, armored ambulance, armored, Flakpanzer, FlaRakpanzer and the lead tank air defense should build. Due to the fighting style of the armored infantry were, however, technical problems with the concept of the armored personnel carrier, the same should be the basis for all other platforms. The development of hunting gun and missile tank destroyer was to continue separately and in 1967 successfully completed. In January 1960, the group were Rheinstahl (Rheinstahl Witten, Rheinstahl Hanomag, engineers Warnecke) and Henschel AG (Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel Kassel) with MOWAG charged with the development of seven prototypes. As a result, several approaches have been presented based on the HS 30th The prototypes of the first generation were the RU 111, RU 112 and RU 122 of Rhine steel. 1HK 2/1 and 1HK 2/2 from Henschel and vehicles HM HM 1 and 2 of MOWAG All prototypes had a combat weight of 16 tonnes.
Due to the influence of the NATO partners, who demanded a say, and through a variety of proposals from other departments of the Armed Forces to test ran but slow. An agreement between the U.S. and the Federal Republic of Germany, to develop a common armored, was discarded.
In 1963, the list of demands for the second generation has been adjusted. This prototype was made ​​with a combat weight of 20 tonnes.Rheinstahl Group built the armored RU 214, RU 261 and RU 262 with front engine, improved tailgate, one-man turret with 20-mm machine gun and anti-tank guided missiles . MOWAG sat with their prototypes 2M1 / 1, 2M1 / 2 and 2M1 / 3 on a mid engine.
In 1964 came the third generation of the IFV with a new list of demands, adapt to the new needs of the Bundeswehr. The armored personnel carrier was longer and wider. In addition, the car got a heck-MG and ball covers on the sides for a weapons use under armor protection. As further recognition of the second generation showed that the one-man turret was not the right way. Suggest a two-man turret with scheitellafettierter was automatic cannon developed, which could be integrated without fundamental changes in the IFV.
In 1967, the last ten prototypes were developed and tested extensively in troop trials. The company MOWAG was eliminated in 1968, accounted for the boot device for a missile. After two years of successful tests of the 1969 series for the delivery of 2136 armored personnel carriers was signed. The first production vehicle was on 7 Delivered in May 1971 at the Panzer Grenadiers. Made the armored personnel were from the company Rheinstahl AG Maschinenbau Kiel (MaK).

Combat performance upgrades

During his period of service IFV was improved on several occasions in military parlance combat capability increased .
In the years 1977 to 1979 saw the first combat efficiency, the raccoon with all the anti-tank weapon MILAN were equipped. Their use was made ​​on or sold. Due on carrying four missiles the Absitzstärke drops to six men
In the same year with completion of the retrofit MILAN received all martens another combat efficiency. The upgrade included the installation of a Doppelgurtzuführers for the machine cannon for selective firing of explosive fire (English High Explosive Incendiary (HEI)) - or armor-piercing discarding sabot ammunition (English Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot (APDS)). Another significant change was the installation of better passive optics of the first generation. The included image intensifier was less sensitive to the spotlight and floor bolts.674 Marder 1 was updated to version A1 (+). This meant that additional equipment with a monitoring device on the basis of a thermal imaging device. With this it was possible to detect enemy tanks and at greater distances than ever before. 350 armored vehicles were on the stage Marder 1 A1 (-) brought. This in turn meant that these models did not receive any heat image-based observation optics, but were modified so that a retrofit would have been possible in the shortest time. The remaining 1,112 copies called Marder 1 A1A received no corresponding device and were not intended. The entire conversion was completed 1982nd
From 1984 to 1989 there was a renewed combat efficiency. This included the installation of a thermal imaging device (WBG) for the gunner, the elimination of the rear mount, the installation of the new family of radios SEM  80/90, the retrofitting of operating the MILAN-infrared adapter (MIRA) in the anti-tank weapon MILAN and angle mirror wash for driver. As part of this conversion, the name changed for all models of the weasel family to Marder first The name of the converted vehicles was Marder 1A2.
The next upgrade was seamless in the years 1989 to 1998 and included the improvement of passive armor protection, as well as the redesign of the assault crew compartment. So the hull front was armored, the hatch behind the driver disappeared. The rear hull roof was also armored and additionally received only three hatches. The tower, its apex carriage and the thermal imager were also armored. The total additional armor was thereby damped shock adapted flush on rubber elements. The sides have been supplemented with additional storage compartments, resulting in the elimination of the ball aperture result. The machine gun tower moved from right to the left side.The installation of a more powerful 720-horsepower engine has been omitted for reasons of cost. The entire conversion extended to 2097 infantry fighting vehicles, the name changed to Marder 1A3.
Furthermore, given some Marder 1A3 one crypto- and SATCOM -enabled SEM 93 . They are named Marder 1A4, but are externally indistinguishable from the Marder 1A3. They serve the commanders of mechanized infantry battalions as the lead tank.
In 2001, another small improvement followed by Rheinmetall Land Systems. This includes rearranging the ejector the smoke grenade and the programming of the controller for full use of the six cups. Due to the construction only five of the six cups were used. So the bottom-right cup was prior to the change so aligned that he lifted up the body hit the fog machine cannon. The name did not change.
A year later, on 18 December 2002, the planned since 1996 to combat efficiency Marder 1A5 began, it included the installation of a mine protective equipment by counteracting pressure blast mines and projectile-forming mines . These measures led to a further loss of mobility , while a total of 37.5 tons of weight gain as well as a complete overhaul and redesign of the rear fighting compartment, the package plan for the equipment, and a revision of the engine cooling system. Rheinmetall delivered the first of a total of 74 vehicles to the German Army. The Marder 1A5 are used in missions abroad, as well as a training vehicle in the schools of the army.
In December 2010, the first 10 marten 1A5A1 were delivered. They have space cooling system, jammers and multispectral Tarnausstattung, this equipment was designed especially for foreign missions, such as the Afghanistan operation. The space cooling system reduces the high temperature stress, while the jammer and the Barracuda Tarnausstattung increases with heat transfer system survivability.  Until August 2011 a further 25 Marder IFV been updated 1A5A1.

Marder 1

The Marder 1 is a front driven full-tracked vehicle. It serves the armored infantry combat vehicle and as the lead tank. By Kit VB and called Marder 1A3 VB he was in serious companies of mechanized infantry battalions until its dissolution as observation tank for forward observers (VB) of the angle of fire component ( armored mortar used 120 mm) and replaced the Kanonenjagdpanzer . The kit contains a TZG 90 A1 (portable target locator), a fire control type / Mrs MRI 86 (military computers, portable) and two SEM 90 (transmitter / receiver, mobile) and SEM 80 . The assembly of the TZG on the marten is possible with a suitable mounting bracket instead of MILAN, but it can also be used deposed.
Since the authority to operate at 31 December 2002, the Marder 1A3 VB replaced until the introduction of the new observation vehicle for the Joint Fire Support Teams (JFST) based on the fennec fox and Boxer and the optronic observation tank artillery on the M113. Since the Marder 1A3 is in the artillery observation tank is not as necessary reconstruction measures and would be too costly, it serves merely as the artillery troop transport vehicle. The designation is 1A3/ArtBeob marten.
In addition, the tub in the execution 1A3 as the basis for the driving school Marder, in slightly modified form in the Argentine armed forces under the name Tanque Argentino Mediano ( ger "Argentine moderate armor"), Vehiculo de Combate Transporte de Personal ( dt used "vehicle for transporting people in combat"). The air defense missile tank Roland also used a modified tub of martens, resembling due to the side storage boxes the Marder 1A3, but was designed differently.


The hull of the armored personnel carrier is made ​​of several varieties rolled welded steel tanks and designed as a solid armor. When the front, the sides and the rear of the crew are beveled and offer limited protection against fire from 20-mm machine guns (frontal), grenades and infantry weapons (to 7.62 mm). In addition, it reduces the effect of radiation. The attached since the Marder 1A3 additional armor was as Schott armor running and increased resistance at the critical points against shelling out 30-mm machine guns. To protect againstNBC weapons has the armored an NBC protective ventilation system with a capacity of three cubic meters per minute. For night driving, the driver has an image intensifier-propelled device that can be used instead of the average angle mirror. The commander and gunner are against the Marder 1A3 equipped only with a common thermal imaging device, which the commander of a light tube (English light-pipemay use).
Like the leopard family, the Marder 1 with a hydraulic submersible and is up to two meters tiefwatfähig .

Drive and drive

The armored has a torsion bar spring mounted support roller drive with hydraulic shock absorbers in the first, second, fifth, and sixth roller. He has a "living" Endverbindergleiskette with replaceable chain cushions the company Diehl . When driving in snow, on ice or to increase the grip of the chain, a part of the chain pads against cast iron snow grippers are exchanged.

Powered by a liquid-cooled V-6 four-stroke pre-chamber diesel engine of the type MB 833 Ea-500 with two turbochargers of the company, MTU Friedrichshafen , The engine reaches an output of 441 kW (600 hp) at 2200 rpm from 22.4 liters. It speeds up the Marder 1A3 from stage to a top official of 65 km / h The armored personnel to stage 1A2 reached contrast speeds of 75 km / h
Like the Leopard main battle tank, the drive system is designed as a complete engine block, consisting of motor and flanged shift, reverse and steering gear, which allows changing the complete drive train with the assistance of a recovery vehicle in a short time. The supply lines to the vehicle are equipped with self-sealing quick disconnect couplings. The cooling system is located to the vehicle, due to the front engine and the trunk lid, the fans sit right and left upwards in the rear of the vehicle. The system voltage is 24 volts, equivalent to the standard in the Bundeswehr. Generator is a generator with an output of 9 kW.
As a hydro-mechanical transmission shift, reverse and steering gear (HSWL 194) used the company Renk. Equipped with a torque converter with lock-up clutch, gearbox, steering gear shift and it also has a built-hydrodynamic flow brake ( retarder ). Switched to the four forward and four reverse gears by hand or with automatic switch, the gearbox is controlled electro-hydraulically. For the brake system is a hydraulic dual-circuit brake system .


The raccoon has a in the two-man turret housed 20-mm machine cannon (BMK) MK 20 Rh 202 , a turret machine gun (TMG) MG3 (7.62 mm) and a smoke grenade launcher with six throwing cups. Optional on the tower, a guided missile (LFK) type MILAN be mounted and fired.
The lateral and vertical alignment of the main and secondary weapon is via an electro-hydraulic straightening machine or mechanically by hand in emergency mode. They allow a page indicative range of 360 degrees and an elevation range of -17.5 degrees to +65 degrees. The recommended speed of the 3.2-ton tower is in normal operation, 180 ° for four seconds.
The main weapon to be used against unarmored targets up to a distance of 2000 meters. Here comes the explosive incendiary ammunition (HEI) is used. Against lightly armored targets at 1000 meters sabot ammunition (APDS) is used. The use against heavily armored targets is possible in good conditions below 600 meters. When fighting a battle tank is the aperture with HEI possible to allow the use of MILAN and the armored infantry. A fire with armor-piercing ammunition is unsuccessful. Against air targets the area of influence is limited, and it is used then only against directly attacking destinations. The maximum engagement range is up to 2000 meters in helicopters and jet aircraft up to 1200 meters.
The maximum range of the main weapon of the struggle lies unabhäng distances at 6,000 to 11,000 meters.
For maneuver , the entire tube is exchanged for a blank firing device (MDD). This is a lot thicker and visually resembles the tube for sharp weapons use, but is closed at the end of the tube. The safety zone in front of the weapon is to maneuver ammunition and blank firing device 10 meters, 70 meters without MPG.
The secondary weapon is tracked parallel to the main weapon. The modification to the Marder 1A3 MG3 sitting left outside the apex mount. Installed into a tank weapons the MG3 is fired electrically and used against infantry.
Furthermore, in the rear can battle space housed armored infantry from three hatches over the side with their hand weapons (G36, MG3,MP2A1 , Granatpistole 40 mm ) and can also be used to fight dismounted.

Occupation in the Marder 1A3

The crew consists of at the armored infantry: commander , gunner (both in the tower), driver (the front of the tub), and six grenadiers in the rear combat zone, as follows: Troop Commander ( G36 ), contactors 1 ( MG3 ), contactors 2 (G36 + MILAN ), contactors 3 (G36 + MILAN-loader), contactors 4 (G36, PzFst3 ), Sagittarius 5 ( Sniper ).

The task of the commander is to manage the tank or the group. This he observed from the tower of the present site, and can engage with the turrets into battle. If the primary use in dismounted combat, he leads the infantry squad, while the squad leader takes his place in the tower.
The job of the gunner is to use the turrets to observe the surrounding terrain with the optics of the carapace, and the radio traffic perform.For directing the turrets have commander and gunner via one Periskopvisier dual and six times magnification and on the common thermal imaging device. The operation of the tower is carried out via hydraulic motors which are powered by a 108-bar-hydraulic system. In the event of failure of the hydraulic system allows the gunner set the tower on winches and build a hand pump hydraulic pressure for additional functions.