Thursday, August 23, 2012

Leopard 2

The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank from German production. It has been built since 1979 in series and is the successor to the Leopard 1 . In the long production time incurred various optional retrofitting options and specifications for foreign customers. Therefore, there are many variants of the Leopard 2 He is wholly or partly abroad license made. For the manufacturer Krauss-Maffei Wegmann - 1979 Krauss-Maffei - he with around 3000 units built a commercial success. Until 2008, the Bundeswehr has reduced its inventory of active Leopard 2 formerly of 2125 pieces in 1990 to 350 pieces. As part of the reorientation of the Bundeswehr that number is further reduced to 225.  The A6 version with longer gun is in service since 2001. The Leopard 2 tanks was originally intended as the backbone of armored forces and to protect against hostile armored units. In the wake of the Kosovo war, he first came in KFOR used. The NATO countries, Denmark and Canada are the Leopard 2 years in the ISAF mission in Afghanistan once.

Leopard 2A5
Crew                                      4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)
Long                                       7.72 m (without cannon)
Width                                     3,76 m
Height                                   3.03 m (Oberkante PERI)
Mass                                    62 t (A6)
Main armament                   120-mm smoothbore gun 42 shot

Secondary armament          2 × 7.62-mm MG 3 shot 4750

Plating                 Third Kompositpanzerung generation , additional armor design in Scotland
Mine protection force           A6M: STANAG 4569 Level IV, 10-kg antitank mine and EFP mine
Drive                          MTU MB 873 12-cylinder diesel 1103 kW (1500 hp)

Suspension                  MTU MB 873 12-cylinder diesel 1103 kW (1500 hp)

Top speed                    68-72 km / h
Power / weightapprox. 17.8 kW / t (24.2 hp / t) (the purple variant)
Range                          ca. 500 km
Gelände:                     ca. 161 km


The main battle tank Leopard 2 has its roots in a bilateral project between the Armor USA and the Federal Republic of Germany . [5] Both states sought after replacement for the models M48 Patton II in the Federal Republic and M60 in the United States. Therefore, in August 1963 the development of a single battle tank for the respective armed forces as part of an intergovernmental agreement was approved.The project called battle tank 70 (MBT 70 or English MBT 70) failed due to the very high standards that have been put on this vehicle: fire fighting from the movement on a moving target, Waffennachführung, automatic loader, 20-mm-mounted weapons system and the arrangement of the driver seat in the tower were just some of the demands that were ahead of their time. After seven prototypes and 830 million DM development costs, the program was discontinued in 1969, however, both partners were the results of the development of MBT 70 are introduced in their national armor projects. On the U.S. side was the M1 Abrams constructed, while in Germany the Leopard 2 was created.

The real beginning of the development of the Leopard 2 can be traced back to the year 1970 - after adjusting the MBT-70 project, it was decided to build a new custom battle tank, a combat efficiency of the Leopard 1 was rejected. Served as a basis of the then Defence Minister Helmut Schmidt favored and in 1968 began Experimental Development Boar (Leopard 2K) Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Porsche.By the Ministerial Eberhardt, of Armaments at the Ministry of Defence excited study boar (Leopard 2FK) with the 152-mm gun M81 combination " Shillelagh "was not pursued.

First prototypes of the "Leopard 2K" (cannon) were built from 1972 to 1974 for testing. The 16 chassis were designated PT (PT awarded 1 to 17, the 12 was not) and took advantage of the advanced engine of the battle tank 70th The 17 towers of the first generation were designated T1 to T17. The similarity of the shape of a tower to Leopard 1A3 and 1A4 was intended as the rangefinder EMES 12 in Leopard 1 had to be retrofitted. The armor of the hull and turret was made ​​of mild steel, PT / T 6 to 10 and PT / T 13-17 possessed a version of armor steel. Served as the main armament smoothbore guns in caliber 105 mm and 120 mm. Rig 11 was the scheitellafettierte 20-mm machine gun as secondary armament. Also being tested was next to the torsion bar suspension 70th the hydropneumatic suspension system of the MBT.

1973, the first field trials followed the combat troops School 2 in Munster with two prototypes, further testing with four additional prototypes followed in the summer of 1974. The air tests in 1975 at the Shilo training area / Canada and Yuma (Arizona) were used to determine the load capacity. Another five prototypes were on the test points used Trier, Meppen and Greding for system and component analysis. PT 7 The prototype was sold to the United States.

The second-generation prototypes of the later production version should arrive at least superficially similar to, the so-called "Leopard 2 AV" were. Based on the findings from the Yom Kippur War in 1973, the armor protection has been significantly improved, which led to a redesign of the hull and turret, but also the combat weight of the tank well above the targeted MLC  raised 50 and therefore the MLC 60 established a new ceiling. Study of a bilateral double tube Kasemattpanzers wherein the MLC 50 limit was observed was, briefly an alternative to Leopard 2 evolution could prevail not.

Because of the new protection concept and the absence of retrofitting the Leopard 1, the tower 14 of the first generation to have been converted T14 mod. By reservations about the laser for distance determination was Leitz with the EMES 13, a passive rangefinder built, based on the correlation principle and had a base width of 350 mm. Wegmann This allowed the construction of the Shrew tower .Ultimately led the U.S. demand for a better protection plan and the available composite armor for the angular shape of the tower series. A configured for the electrical supply of the vehicle is at a standstill and the engine to preheat APU from the first prototype was attributable in favor of a larger tank capacity. 30 years later was the basis of the experience gained during missions in crisis areas Auxiliary Power realized. Furthermore, among others, the fire control system (FLA) has been simplified and the optics were primarily stabilized, the tub floor designed mine safer and embedded electronics including hydraulic and ammunition in the turret rear. The bisherig used night vision goggles were replaced by a thermal imaging device, which still was not available. Cannon as the main armament were provided in caliber 105 mm and 120 mm. The armor consisted of mild steel, the fire vehicle was carried out in steel armor.

Marked another important step in 1976, the comparison test the Leopard 2 AV (PT19/T19) with 105-mm-Zugrohrkanone and the XM1 (the prototype of today's M1 Abrams main battle tank) in the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland / USA. For the first time the advantages and disadvantages of the two weapons systems have been determined, however, a definition of the two countries dropped to a common battle tanks from both sides from the start. Of the 117 established criteria, of which 77 were evaluated, met the Leopard 2 AV 61 and the 48th XM1 Summarized in 17 groups, however, reviewed, only six were filled with the Leopard 2, 16 of XM1. [6] [7] Reviewed under the German system by each criterion was scored separately and evaluated the Leopard 2 was clearly superior to the XM1. Sun said XM1 lacked the NBC protection system, an independent periscope for the commander and the possibility for underwater driving.According to the instruction of the then Defence Minister Georg Leber had to remain any kind of protest. The signed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU - Memorandum of Understanding), in which the test conditions were accepted forbade any contradiction. Instead, as many components of the two tanks must be identical. It happened, however, because of the advanced stage of development of the German system, and a difference of opinion on the financial capability of the self-production only in its infancy. Major changes on the way to the production vehicle were finally the installation of the 120-mm smoothbore gun, and the decision to install the manufactured under license laser rangefinder the U.S. firm Hughes , that was against the EMES 13 cheaper and ready for production. For the thermal imager WBG-X of the WBG Zeiss basic unit (U.S. Common Modules) was fromTexas Instruments selected. After completion of the tests have brought with 120-mm weapon system has not yet assembled on site in the AV to demonstrate the feasibility.

The Americans rejected the German smoothbore gun at first and stopped at the 105-mm gun M68 (variant of the British Royal Ordnance L7 fixed), but took over the German chains and ammo holders. In 1985, the 120-mm smoothbore gun but was then installed from U.S. production in M1. Plans for the installation of the U.S. gas turbine in the leopard were the company Maschinenbau Kiel studied (MRC) in 1977 and 1978 on a prototype, due to the advanced stage of development, however, rejected, as this required the tub would have to be changed again.

Today - in 1977 the former company Krauss-Maffei was Krauss-Maffei Wegmann - intended as a general contractor for the supply of 1,800 battle tanks Leopard 2, 810 tanks (45%) was attributable to the company MaK (since 2000 Rheinmetall Land Systems ). The production should be carried out in five construction lots. At the end of the project there were but eight lots with additional 325 Leopard 2 In the variants A0 to A4 2125 copies for the German armed forces was produced. Overall, took part in the 1500 manufacturing company.

In September 1977 at a military exhibition in Cologne-Wahn the Leopard 2 AV was first presented to the public. After three Vorserienfahrgestellen troops to experimental use of the first mass-produced battle tank Leopard 2 was the type 24 October 1979 in Munich passed the Panzer Lehr Brigade 9 in Munster.

The development costs for the Leopard 2 program were loud procurement instruction 359.4 million German marks , but without the development of the engine from the main battle tank program 70 and the development of the 120-mm smoothbore gun with ammunition considered. So the real costs rose to 600 million DM, which all items of the experimental development includes up to series production (1967 to 1984). As a system price for a Leopard 2 in the 21 Century called numbers from three to twelve million euros, which fluctuate due to inflation and exchange rates, and also depend on the quantity ordered. The price includes only the vehicle technical support and spare parts for a certain period.

Functional Description

The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank of the third post-war generation with four-member crew. Conventional design executed with rear engine, it was the concept of combined arms battle anti-tank in conjunction with the armored Marder designed. He is the principal weapon system of armored troops of the Armed Forces and foreign users States.

It consists of a tank with an attached self-supporting tower with a 120-mm smoothbore gun as the main armament, a smoke grenade , and two machine guns of various types depending on the user state as secondary armament. The fire control system of the tower allows the gunner , in stance as well as from the trip with stationary or moving targets to cause the fire fight.

The tank was repeatedly subjected to fight increases in value. In the A5 version of the turret front was a characteristic applique armorfitted, a separate thermal sight for the commander made ​​him independent of the gunner. With the image intensifier for the driver of the tank is full and limited all-weather night-fighting capability. With the A6 version, the firepower was increased. Compared to the standard armament of the L/44 gun L/55 long by 1.30 meters and allows for a better implementation of the firing energy in projectile velocity. This in turn increases range and shooting accuracy of the gun.

To protect the four-man crew, he, like all tanks of the Cold War on a NBC protection and ventilation system with a capacity of 300 m³ / h, making the sustainability in with NBC warfare agents to ensure contaminated land. The maximum lifetime is specified as 48 hours.

Like other battle tank Leopard 2 can of water without the aid of pioneering technology to cross. To 1.20 meters depth, he is without roof or prepare for fording . With the entrained foldable 50 centimeters high Tiefwatschacht his so Tiefwatfähigkeit rises to 2.25 meters, by a three-piece rigid, not carried underwater landing he is ready to drive under water up to a depth of 4 meters. That is, he disappears completely under water. When the dive deep wading hydraulic be switched and a diving rubber cap placed on the cannon muzzle. 2A4 to additionally protect from the loading of a hand pump had the turret ring seal are inflated, the A5 with lower manufacturing tolerances accounted this measure. The submersible hydraulic closes while loading and vents on the motor and a combustion air damper opens to the engine bulkhead in the tank interior. About this the engine sucks in deep wading and underwater driving to the combustion air through the commander's hatch with fitted Tiefwat or underwater landing. The Commander stands for the drive-through in this shaft and supports the driver. Since entry of water can not be avoided completely, the vehicle has two bilge pumps and the crew is with dive rescuersequipped and flotation collar.

To have the communication by the Bundeswehr each have two VHF radios SEM (transmitter / receiver, mobile) 80/80 or 80/90. As for the secondary armament here too the features vary. To reduce the thermal signature and to support the passive armor protection Leopard 2 is provided with an infrared-reducing coating.

Technical Description


The armament consists of the weapon system with the main gun and fire control and aiming equipment and the secondary armament.

The main armament of the Leopard 2 is the 120-mm smoothbore gun Rh 120 with smoke evacuator Rheinmetall for fin-stabilized ammunition. It is sign journalled and has an elevation range of -9 ° to 20 ° and a pivoting range of 360 °. When turning on the tail tank, the cannon is raised automatically by the Heckabweiserfunktion.

As secondary armament serve a pipe parallel ( coaxial ) machine gun ("Cover-MG"), a machine gun for anti-aircraft next to the hatch of the loader ("anti-aircraft machine gun") as well as a multiple grenade launcher (MWA) with 2 × 8 throw cups the side of the tower for shooting A smoke bodies for self-protection. Since May 2005, the armed forces have for the most part on a new multi-purpose launcher (MZWA) with the arrangement 6/2 (top row of six cups, two cups bottom row) per side. The new system is able to use up explosive or non-lethal ammunition.

For maneuver and the appearance of the fire fight with and without training equipment duel simulator features of Leopard on recordings for the kadag (cannon-firing-presentation equipment), often also under the abbreviation Darkas (presentation-gun firing) known. The arrangement is up to the Leopard 2A4 on the cannon and A5 from the front left. Wedge on the armor of the tower.

In addition to the on-board armament has the crew of handguns for self-defense. In the army, these are two MP2A1 , two P8 , a flare gunHK P2A1 , four hand grenades and two MG3 the tank with a total of 4750 shots, strapped with soft-core tracer in the ratio of three to two.

Weapon stabilization

The tower or the main gun has the Leopard 2 A4 via a hydraulic Waffennachführanlage (WNA-H22); battle tanks from the A5 version is equipped with an electric Waffennachführanlage (EWNA). In combination with the central logic / main distribution, the target devices, the fire control, the operator panels and the internal Panzerprüfgerät RPP 1-8 form the assemblies and the fire control of the battle tank.

In the automatic mode stabilized BAR ON  - bumps and speed are automatically compensated, the weapon system remains under all environmental conditions aimed at the target. The cannon and the tower will be determined by measuring the movement of gyroscopesstabilized and the directional motor drives in height and width of Waffennachführanlage. The weapon is thus tracked the values ​​of the leading destination device (EMES or PERI). Because of the very low error to stabilize the mirror assemblies of view the intended target remains at driving in the picture. Gunner or commander must aim at the target with only the leading optics and follow moving targets where appropriate. By pressing the button for the dynamic derivative driving motion of a target is automatically taken into account.

Another mode is TOWER  - in the power of the tower is turned off, only the radio, lights, and the MG fans are powered. Directing and firing is done manually, the gun is not stabilized. In the mode OBSERVE takes full power in a restricted mode. For the gunner, the coarse leveling is possible, the optics will then follow the cannon, which means that the line image changed when new values. It can all target devices are used in this mode, however, is not firing from the trip possible. Against moving targets is a manual derivative action necessary. For powering up the tower in BAR ON requires the technology for about 25 seconds.

Target Devices

The main target device the EMES 15 serves with a CE628 laser from Zeiss Optronic Eltro as a rangefinder. The Nd: YAG laser measures distances up to 9990 meters to 10 meters exactly, with only firing distances from 200 to 4000 meters, are considered. For measurements less than 200 meters from the fire control is expected to top the value for 1000 meters, 4000 meters above values ​​must be entered manually. When multiple echoes of the laser, from the Leopard 2A5 in addition to the last echo Erstecho be selected. Coupled with the 12-fold principal magnification scope (HZF) it is the primary optical sight for the gunner. In the operating mode ON STAB the EMES 15 is the leading optics for tower and cannon. The second objective of the device is the turret gunner scope (TZF) FERO Z18 available. The failure of the fire control system, it serves as Notoptik. A scale bar in the image support in adjusting the estimated excess removal.

Also integrated in the EMES 15 is from 1983, the thermal imager WBG-X from Zeiss, and it replaces the PZB 200 as night destination device. A four-and 12-fold magnification allows watching and controlling both daytime and at night. With a detector of mercury - cadmium - telluride , which must be cooled to about -190 ° C, that demands WBG one precooling of about 15 minutes. The display is monochrome green-white with a selectable polarity of black and so that heat sources appear to be particularly bright or dark. With a sufficient temperature difference of individual objects that can be seen in an observed section of the terrain very well. Heavy rain, snow and dense fog with a high water content will reduce the range of the thermal imager.

The commander has the R17 periscope (PERI R17) had its own observation and target device, but without the distance measurement function. The stabilized optics with two and eight times magnification allowed to work independently from the gunner. Thus, the commander independently observe targets, assign the gunner aims and monitor it. Thereto, the PERI on the following settings. By pressing the button KH (leads Major Weapon) swivels in the tower on the sighting line of the PERI, the goal can be fought by the gunner or the commander. With the selection of timeouts (target monitoring) against swings the PERI to the sight line of the EMES, the commander sees the aim of the gunner. By switching to the direct-view adapter - a visual link between EMES and PERI - from the gunner used image of the EMES-transferable. With the PERI R17A2 and the integrated thermal imagerTIM (thermal imaging module) from the Leopard 2A5, the trackability easier at night. A monitor that is located just below the angle mirror provides the built-in TIM thermal imaging module OPHELIOS-P and the EMES represents the WBG has a 4-fold, 12-fold and 24-fold magnification. Two fixed index Post Ion 6-clock and 12 clock enable line of sight of the PERI regardless of the tower position to the longitudinal axis of the tank sump align.

A Feldjustierspiegel near the mouth of the cannon allows corrections of adjusting the target equipment on the main weapon to compensate for deviations of the bore axis of the tube.


The ammunition for the gun is located both in the turret rear and in the armored tank. The willingness ammunition behind a pressure-tight bulkhead door in the tower contains 15 cartridges (which can be of various types) and is for the loader's always accessible. The 27 rounds in the tub (in direction of travel from the driver) are only accessible when the tower in a certain position (3 clock - then lashed security reasons).

The Leopard 2 initially possessed two types of ammunition. Employed against enemy battle tank shell is called KE ammunition (BW label for K inetische E nergy, NATO designation APFSDS (T) Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot-Tracer ), an armor-piercingkinetic energy projectile with sabot and tracer . Against hardened and soft targets, including infantry, the MZ-munitions (BW term for More- Z wake ammunition, NATO designation HEAT -MP-T High Explosive Anti-Tank Multi Purpose - Tracer ), a shaped charge multipurpose projectile with tracer used. Both bullet types are stabilized wing. All types of ammunition consist teilverbrennbaren sleeves, made ​​of cellulose, nitrocellulose, resin and stabilizing additives and leaving the firing of only the sleeve base of steel

When KE ammunition using a sabot is a fin-stabilized flechette with a caliber of about 38 millimeters of sintered tungsten carbide fired from the 120-mm smoothbore gun. The bullet has, depending on type of ammunition and cannon (DM 33 + L/44), a muzzle velocity of 1640 m / s (or about five times the speed of sound). The effect is based on the KE projectile kinetic energy and contains no explosives, and its effect is solely dependent on its landing energy. After impingement on the target, and during penetration of the armor of the arrow displaced by its high kinetic energy armor material. Before he enters into the battle zone, he caused to the inside of a splitter rain. By air resistance decreases with increasing distance, the speed of the penetrator and thus its kinetic energy and penetration power.

The MZ-s bullet has a muzzle velocity of 1140 m / The speed has no notable effect on the penetration. This is due to the formation of the shell of a hollow charge projectile.Consequently, the removal of excess has no effect on the target effect. As a result of the breakdown caused by extreme heat, it is usually in the tank to secondary explosions.Pressure against the occupant and splinter effect of molten material. The dielectric performance against homogeneous armor plates are about 600 millimeters in MZ and 800 millimeters at the KE projectile.

Because of improvements in technology protection against shaped charge projectiles developed by Rheinmetall an HE projectile (HE shell). It replaces the old MZ-munitions in the army and thus enhancing the effectiveness of the Leopard 2 against surface targets against missile positions behind cover and in shelters, against infantry, armored, lightly armored vehicles and positions in buildings. The muzzle velocity of the 19-pound projectile with the L/55 is about 1100 m / s and allows fighting distances up to 5000 meters. This ammunition has not only a time fuse on an impact fuse with and without delay. The igniter is either set manually by a separate fuse setting device or automatically via a connection to the firing control. With the help of the time fuse, it is possible to allow the ammunition to detonate in the air at a predetermined distance to the destination.

Besides this ammunition armed forces also have training ammunition for live fire. The army uses them for the KE-and MZ-Ov-projectiles.Both are marked in light blue. Due to the safety area of 90 kilometers for the KE-combat ammunition for live fire, the armored force in Germany almost exclusively used the exercise version of KE ammunition. Of the KE penetrator Ov consists of a lighter material and has a perforated plug tail. At first 2000 meters meet the external ballistic characteristics close to those of combat ammunition, only at greater distances, there are rapidly growing divergence. The safety zone is 22 kilometers, with improved KE-Ub ( APFSDS-T-TP, TP where stands for target practice ) it is 7.5 kilometers. The MZ-Ub ( HEAT-TP-T ) is similar to the warhead of the combat cartridge DM 12 A2.This has a concrete head, reduce the damage in the target area and thus the cost.

The company Rheinmetall offers besides the usual types of ammunition for the Leopard 2 and a kit called Lahat on, with a further performance improvement is achieved. Lahat is a laser-guided missile of Israel Aerospace Industries, with an effective range of more than 6000 meters from the cannon or is fired from a position-independent boot device. The improvement also includes a laser-based fire control system for the steering arms. The missile is resistant to all known Störversuche and can be used against tanks, helicopters and goals out of sight of the crew.

Masse - Patron
in kg
Mass - penetrator / projectile
in kg
in m / s
Combat distance
in meters
that. 1,140
that. 2,600
that. 1,650
that. 3,200
that. 1,650
that. 3,500
that. 1,650
that. 3,500
7.2 with sabot
that. 5
1670-1750 (L/55)
that. 8.45
1650 (L/44)
that. 19
ca. 950 (L/44)
ca. 1100 (L/55)


Leopard 2 is characterized by a composite armor (also known as multi-layer or Kompositpanzerung) of the third generation (C technology) protected. The exact structure and the strength are secret and are based on the current development of weapons technology.There is the armoring of a multiple-bulkhead assembly, in which the gaps are filled with an elastic rubber. As materials, various types of steel with different degrees of hardness and composite materials such as ceramic, plastic or Kevlar are used. The design follows the so-called Chobham principle, however, is not Chobham armor . Special emphasis was put on a strong front armor.

The tub and the tower are as housing with integrated armor made, that is, the outer and inner tubular plates assume in addition to protecting body also functions. Within this supporting structure, the actual plating is used in the form of blocks in the cavities provided that the tank has its square shape.

The attached since the Leopard 2A5 wedge armor on the turret front, however, was as Schott armor running and has the task of increasing the depth of the armor to break KE penetrators and shaped charge projectiles (HL) to ignite before the basic armor. To this end, the building is divided generally into the Destabilisierungsstufe (Disturber), crushing stage (disrupter) and erosion stage (absorber).The often assumed the bullets ricochet does not occur, since KE ammunition 21st of the Century, is effective even at impact angles of 10 ° to 15 °.

The ammunition bunker of the tower has a rear Ausblasmöglichkeiten ( blow-out panels ) at the top in order to derive the energy of an explosion of the ammunition stored there to the outside. The interior of the tank is equipped with woven mats (Spall liners) of high-strength fibers such as aramid lined (Kevlar) to reduce the penetration of the fragment cone when armor or prevent completely.

In addition to these protective functions of Leopard has 2 depending on operator state other armor elements such Bombletschutz for the top, Slat-Armour (a cage against HL-storeys), advanced mine protection (see A6M) or more armouring in the form of composite armorMEXAS or AMAP of IBD Deisenroth Engineering (Deisenroth Engineering Office).

The different versions of the Leopard 2 tanks equipped with the following protection ( RHA equivalent) against HEAT - and KE penetrator.
Leopard 2A1-A3
Leopard 2A4
Leopard 2A5
Tank 122
When front
KE penetrators:
350–550 mm
600 mm
620 mm
620–780 mm
When front
-HEAT grenades:
520 mm
620–710 mm
620–750 mm
750–920 mm
Turret front
KE penetrators:
500–550 mm
590–690 mm
850–930 mm
920–940 mm
810 mm
810–1290 mm
980–1730 mm
1290–1960 mm

Drive and drive

Leopard 2 is a liquid-cooled, four-stroke V12 prechamber - Multi-fuel engine of the type MTUdriven MB 873 Ka five hundred and first With an intercooler and two turbochargers fitted, it provides 1100 kW (1500 hp) at an engine speed of 2600 min -1 and speeds up the tank to a top official of 68 km / h The real-to-reach terminal velocity varies depending on the surface and can be up to 30 km / h over. About speeds from 2850 rpm -1 be prevented by the electronic engine control system (MCA). Critical cooling liquid state or oil level it is automatically switched off. The maximum torque of 4700 Nm at 1600 min -1 achieved.

The unit comes from the engine program 500 of the Ka-70 main battle tank development.Compared the Ka has 501 one enlarge to 47.6 liters, which is reflected in a higher torque and load acceptance capability throughout the entire speed range and the acceleration performance improved. The degree of separation of the combined air filter and the efficiency of the cooling system has been improved and increased stability. The pure multi-fuel capability was not pursued in the development of MTU Friedrichshafen, so at least a fuel mixture of 60% diesel and 40% other approved flammable liquid is necessary. A dry sump forced lubricationensures cross even with inclination of 35 ° in the direction of the crankshaft and 25 ° to an oil supply for all lubrication points. The supply lines to the vehicle are equipped with self-sealing quick disconnect couplings. An attached via a countershaft on diesel engine oil-cooled 20-kW generator supplies the 24-volt electrical system with power.

The combustion air required for operation is supplied via two laterally mounted on the motor combination air filter. Them in the circular by two Ansaughutzen is cleaned on the Triebwerksabdeckplatte sucked air and cyclone filter 95% freed from coarse dust. This is then removed by a Grobstaubsauggebläse from the engine room. Two other fine filter round inserts bind the remaining dust particles. The discharge of heat is achieved by two temperature-controlled ring cooler with integrated fan assembly on the transmission. These are connected by a rubber lip separated from the motor, in order to can bathe with activated hydraulic submersible with water. The fans are turned off during this time. The heated air is blown out during normal operation via the large Heckgräting down there and used to cool the hot exhaust gases, which are by two circular gratings also ejected slightly sloping downward. For underwater travel, the exhaust system is equipped with check valves.

To transmit power to the chain is the hydro-mechanical control, reversing and steering gear type Renk HSWL-354. It combines the driving, steering, - and the auxiliary drive, as well as the brake system in a housing and is flanged together with the motor via the so-called quick-release devices for engine block. The drive is equipped with a hydrodynamic-mechanical 4-speed powershift transmission with turning stage. A mechanically be bridged torque converter is used as a wear-resistant power transmission in the low speed range; the armored case runs in the converter operation. Above 1300 min -1 , with the aid of an automatically closing lock-up clutch reaches a fixed connection, with which the engine power is transmitted as in the case of a rigid shaft. In gear service brake operates in two stages. More than 35 km / h, the tank through a wear-free hydraulic brake fluid (hydrodynamic is retarder ) decelerated. Below this velocity, the brake discs are driven at a pressure of> 98th This allows such a Leopard 2A4 during emergency braking from 70 km / h for braking distance of just 20.6 meters.

As with its predecessors, the drive system is designed as a complete engine block, which allows changing the complete drive train with the assistance of a recovery vehicle as part of a dynamic weapon sight within 15 minutes. Here, however, many run from activities such as separating the side layshaft or loosening the rear panel in advance. A change of specification of the technical regulation is given as four hours.

Also worth mentioning is the relatively low fuel consumption of the Leopard 2 Compared to the often taken as comparing U.S. armored M1 Abrams with its gas turbine type Avco Lycoming AGT-1500, consumption is about half. The biggest advantage of having a diesel engine while at idle and part-load operation .

For the operation of the electrical systems without running the main engine in the rear right hull rear has been APU (English auxiliary power unit , APU) installed. Depending on the user state, the diesel engine has an output of 7.5 kW to 12 kW. In the operating level car and load the batteries are charged while and monitored. In stage Continuous the pulse generator is in continuous operation, it takes over the complete supply and discharge the batteries.


The Leopard 2 has a crew of four (commander, gunner, loader and driver).


The commander is responsible for the main battle tank and its crew. In battle he has to accomplish a variety of tasks:

  1. Lead to radio communications with the platoon leader or company commander
  2. Reconnaissance of the battlefield and target allocation for the gunner
  3. Result of the battle tank in the train by appropriate instructions to the driver
  4. Cause the fire fight by overriding the gunner (in emergency situations or duel)
  5. Determining the type of ammunition to be used: (KE, MC or MG)

This is only a selection of the most important functions, added responsibilities come to fulfill the period specification (ie maintenance) and the checklist and ensure that the receipt of the operational readiness of the carapace. A series of charges added when the commander of the tank's platoon leader, company commander or battalion commander at the same time. He is then responsible not only for the basic tasks in their own armor, but also has to take on even the tactical coordination, ie movement, target allocation and release for the fire under his control formation.


The gunner 's deputy commander and must in case of default the appropriate functions to the extent to assume even possible. However, he is primarily responsible for keeping the fire fight, and the observation of the battlefield in his observation. He must also avoid by appropriately moving the tower and cannon damage by terrain or vegetation at the tower. In a combat situation, as a rule, the commander is the gunner assign the to be controlled target because it has a dated tower independent observation points (PERI R17), which gives him a 360-degree view, without having to move the tower must. If, however, a so-called duel situation one, that is, recognizes the gunner a goal (eg an enemy battle tanks) that targets to combat their own armor, he is instructed that goal without any further consultation with the commander with the currently loaded ammunition to fight. As a secondary weapon he uses the axis parallel to the cannon mounted machine gun.

Besides his duties in combat, he is responsible for the fulfillment of his points in the period and issue on the checklist, that is, he takes care of along with the commanders of maintenance and care around the tower.


The loader has the most physically demanding job in combat: He has seen the 120-mm cartridges from the ammunition store in the tower and thus reload the cannon. The often stated Shot sequence of nine rounds per minute does represent a very good performance of the loader, as just riding a fire fight on the move already easy terrain makes the loading shooters before a physical challenge. In addition to the recharging of the cannon, he is also the paraxial MG3 and 7.62-mm AA MG (anti-aircraft gun) responsible. Even if it is him in the originally intended purpose well used rarely, if ever, the loader also has the ability to interfere with the gun mounted on its hatch in the fighting. As commander and gunner and the loader is responsible for maintenance on the tank. In addition, the loader usually responsible as instructor for the armored tanks, and the tanks clear for action, ie, it uninstalls the rotating beacon, the headlight covers, side skirts, the rear folds up and remove the strainer.


The driver is in contrast to the rest of the crew members housed in the front right of the trough, and thus isolated from the rest of its crew practical. He is the only crew member who can directly influence the movements of the carapace, and therefore bears a special responsibility. In battle, he must drive the vehicle so that it never takes an exposed, so the enemy fire exposed position. He has "an eye" for the site and have the best possible spot positions and position the tank there. The commander gives the driver fundamental marching orders or goals, the concrete execution is left to the driver. Choosing the best travel movements is determined by the hatch under difficult (ie driver's hatch is closed) very limited field of vision. In certain emergency situations, the driver is instructed to avoid self-employed, for example, at the onset of shelling. For the night, the driver can fight the middle of his three -angle mirror against a night vision device exchange. He is also responsible for maintenance of the entire basin, including engine and drive, etc., but the other crew members, such as when adjusting the chain tension involved, supportive.

In the civilian road the driver is supported by the commander and loader, this will help in the assessment of traffic conditions, warn of overtaking vehicles or indicate the following vehicles to keep more distance. In Germany, the driver while driving on the road via Luke go, which means that the driver's hatch is open, and he looks out above. The driver's seat can be adjusted in height for this accordingly.

Operational experience


On 12 June 1999, by the army during the invasion of 28 Leopard 2A5 KFOR troop in Kosovo used. The vehicles of the tank battalions 33 and 214 were sent from Macedonia to Prizren. They served as the physical protection and patrol vehicles as well as the control and observation points in the Show of Force as a hedging vehicle. On the news of the battle tanks appeared in an incident on 13 June 1999,  in which two Serb paramilitaries from a Lada shot one of these checkpoints in Prizren. As the crew was only partially on board, not a shot was fired from the ship's guns, but by dismounted forces of other vehicles. Was a use of the cannon on the other hand it on 26 June 1999, when the crew of a 2A5 four cartridges as warning shots over the place Orahovac fired.

The declining threats, the 2A5 were exchanged for year 2000/2001 compared Leopard 2A4. Another application had some A4 in the riots in 2001 in Macedonia. The main battle tanks were used as building security vehicles for the local logistics warehouse of the Bundeswehr. Until the withdrawal at the end of 2004, the tanks in the Austrian-Swiss Camp "Casablanca" stationed.


Canada nutzt seit August 2007 20 Leopard 2A6M-CAN in Afghanistan beim ISAF -Einsatz. Bei einem ANSCHLAG mit einer Grossen Sprengfalle auf einen kanadischen leopard am second November 2007 überlebte die gesamte Besatzung: "Meine Crew stieß auf ein IED ging in die Geschichte und erste Besatzung als ein, das die ' M 'hat-Paket getestet. Es funktionierte ie, wie es sollten, "schrieb kanadischer Offizier an ein und das deutsche Verteidigungsministerium sagte, dass es in einem anderen Fahrzeug Wohl keine Überlebenden gegeben Hope this guide. Lediglich der Fahrer des Panzers erlitt Hüfte einen Bruch der, die restliche Besatzung Kam MIT Prellungen davon.

The Chief of the Canadian General Staff, General Rick Hillier , reacted to press reports and denied that the leopard was damaged by the explosion destroyed the second Instead, the tanks had been repaired and is now back in service. "The Taliban have attacked in several ambushes the new Leopard 2 tanks", and as a result had the Taliban "learned some very harsh lessons" and "lost the fight very quickly and very violently".

Denmark has laid a train Leopard 2A5DK to Afghanistan and then in the province of Helmand in use. On 5 January 2008, the best armor in the first firefight in support of British troops against Taliban fighters .  On 26 February 2008, a Danish Leopard 2 was hit by an explosive charge. A chain of the vehicle was destroyed, the crew was unharmed. The tank was able to return despite the broken chain under its own power to the camp, where they are repaired.  On 25 July 2008 Another Danish Leopard in Afghanistan was hit by an explosive charge. The driver was killed, as the 2A5DK at the time did not have an additional mine protection equipment.

Leoben community

To ensure the development of the weapon system and the Leopard family of vehicles to a common ground in 1969 by Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway, the Leoben-Community ( Leo -pard ben utzende States)  founded. In several working groups divided and controlled by a steering committee, are the goals of simplifying the supply to develop the weapon system together to simplify the repair, adjust the Leopard family on upcoming threats, and reduce costs.


Variants of the Bundeswehr

After completing the restructuring of reorientation of the Bundeswehr will be a total of 225 Leopard 2, located in the versions in the A6 and A6M inventory of the Bundeswehr. A mixing equipment with different Rüstständen is avoided by the elimination of the A5. These are used in the training center armored troops , the Army combat training center (CBC) as well as the stabilization and Eingreifkräften . The use of the Leopard 2A4 in the CBC as an enemy vehicle and representation at the training center was discontinued in 2008. Mostly they are still in the military engineering services for technical testing.

Most of the Leopard 2A4-resolution units of the Bundeswehr were sold. The cold war in the usual long-term storage (VAS) has been abandoned.  Ten Leopard 2A4 were demilitarized and are intended for exhibitions. The defense company KMW (Krauss-Maffei Wegmann) and RLS (RLS systems) also took some copies for internal trials, and as a basis for any vehicle modifications.

Leopard 2AV

Prototype of the Leopard 2, as austere version called. Total existed two chassis (PT 19, 20), three towers (T19, 20, 21) and a fire vehicle designated AV . The unit price was 1973 about 2.3 million DM

Leopard 2A0

First production version. Made in October 1979 as the first building lot with a total of 380 vehicles, including 209 by Krauss-Maffei and 171 by MaK until March 1982. The basic equipment consisted of the main scope EMES 15, a laser rangefinder, the Rundblickperiskop PERI R17, the tower riflescope FERO Z18, an electric-hydraulic WNA-H22, a fire control computer, a cross wind sensor on the turret roof and a computer-controlled Panzerprüfgerät RPP 1-8. Instead of a thermal imaging device 200 vehicles of the lot possessed a low-light enhancer (PZB 200 = P assives Z -iel and B eobachtungsgerät). Two chassis 10001 (KMW) and 20010 (MRC) were used as training vehicles.

Leopard 2A1

Two sections with a total of 750 vehicles. The production of the lot 2 extended from March 1982 to November 1983, 450 Leopard 2A1, followed seamlessly joined the third contract section with the remaining 300 tanks. Final assembly was completed in November 1984.The main changes included mainly the Lot 2 and were: elimination of the cross-wind sensor, thermal imaging device as standard, uniform standard NATO ammunition holder's main weapon, improved vehicle electrical system, running boards on the engine block, Kommandantenperiskop 5 centimeters higher, modified exhaust gratings , box cable junction on the left turret rear, laying side of the fuel filler neck. of niche vessels, increasing the coverage of the intake hood for the air safety system and rearranging and crossing the tow cables at the rear The contract section 3 was the main battle tank detailed improvements in the interior.

Leopard 2A2

Retrofitting all 2A0 with a thermal imager . The PZB 200 omitted. The designation was changed to 2A2.

Leopard 2A3

Contract Section 4 with detail improvements. Installation of a new radio system SEM 80/90 (VHF). With shorter antennas shortened pitot tube for the gunner's auxiliary scope and now three-color camouflage Overall, between December 1984 and December 1985 300 vehicles were made.

Leopard 2A4

The production of the Leopard 2A4 stretched on four building lots with 695 vehicles. The 5th Contract section of the production began in December 1985 and ended in March 1987. The 370 Leopard possessed a digital ballistic computer for additional types of ammunition as the U.S. Armed Forces, the ammunition hatch accounted for on the left side of the turret and an improved fire suppression system was installed. The contract section 6 of the series possessed from the 97th Vehicle has an improved armor protection, the tower and hull front, a new heavy chain apron, new chains of Diehl, low maintenance batteries and maintenance friendly Leitradabdeckungen. For the protection of soldiers of the camouflage was switched to zinkchromatfreie paints. The production of 150 vehicles ran from January 1988 to May 1989. The lot 7 with 100 vehicles followed seamlessly and without modification ended in April 1990. As of January 1991 the final contract section 8 followed with 75 vehicles. The changes included an improved light and heavy chain apron in D technology - with a straight bottom edge and just a step-up to the first segment - and a Feldjustierspiegel at the mouth of the cannon. The mirror has been fitted on all vehicles. The lot was 19 8 March 1992 with the ceremonial delivery of the last produced Leopard 2A4 of the German Army at the Mountain Tank Battalion.

To unify the design state of the Leopard 2 fleet is made from 1995 to the state of A4. A majority of the vehicles are mixed lots, consisting of trays of the first construction lot and towers from the sixth to eighth contract section. Two vehicles - chassis 11156/Turm 41,164 (troops prototypes maximum); 11157/Turm chassis 41265 (troops prototypes minimum) - the eighth construction lot already served to test the combat efficiency program by Krauss-Maffei.

Troops prototypes

To determine the extent of the planned combat efficiency, were the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement several test vehicles ordered. The 1984 delineation of the target of the training was implemented as 1989 in the testbed components (CBT). Served as a basis a production vehicle from the 5th Contract section. The mainly designed for protection package included an armouring of the well and tower front and roof of the tower with a multi-layer armor of the 4th Generation. The interior was lined with splinter guard (Spall liners). An electric Waffennachführanlage replaced the hydraulic and improved by eliminating the hydraulic fluid to the passive protection for the crew. To eliminate ballistic holes in the armor, the driver received a sliding hatch, the view of the EMES 15 was set up. Other necessary changes that were predominantly of the adjustment, the transfer of the PERI R17 were behind the commander's hatch, a new commander-angle mirror and increasing the bias of the torsion bars. The total weight increased by 7 tons and reduced the power to weight ratio to 17.7 kW / t. From the CBT - after successful testing - created instrument testbed (IVT) was used for testing of the Integrated Command and Control Information System (IFIS) to transmit location information and location of the battle tank.

The experience with the CBT experience in the field trials were pattern 1 (TVM) on two production vehicles of the 8th Contract section applied. It originated in the period winter 1990 to fall 1991, the TVM-max (maximum demand) and TVM-min (minimum requirement). The two prototypes had the intent to tower modules and chassis, a Bombletschutz on the turret roof, sliding hatches for commander and loader, splinter shield in the combat zone, sliding hatch for the driver, revised hydraulic end stops and the increased Drehstabvorspannung.

In some areas, however, was a different equipment made ​​and installed components from different manufacturers. The commander of the TVM max possessed with the PERI-R17A2 about the Israeli thermal imager TIM 8-12 (El OP, since 2000, Elbit Systems),  were the images displayed on a monitor, navigation was by an inertial navigation system support.The lining drives the tower were made ​​electrically. The TVM-min won the PERI R17 TW night vision solution for TV base with large field magnifier and a GPS -based navigation aid.On the use of the tip visors for the commander - with which the Kommandantenrundblickperiskop could be swung automatically to the appropriate area - was omitted. Were also not implemented the armored hub cap the drive and the laser Erstecho evaluation. The tower and weapon uprated drive was carried out electro-hydraulic directional drives.

From winter 1991 to spring 1992, both tanks were the armored troops school tested in active service troops. The superiority of the electric drive propulsion, it soon became the monitor viewing the output image from the thermal imager was favored. Tip the visors and the sliding hatches for commander and loader proved at the time as not fit troops.

The findings were made ​​on 30 March 1992 to 3rd April 1992 at the Federal Academy of Defence Administration and Technology in Mannheim by the three beneficiary countries Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland discussed. The conversion scale corresponded to the following criteria: compliance with the financial ceiling of 1.18 million DM per vehicle, removal of components with high development risk and compliance Verladegewichts of heavy transporter SLT-56 . Therefore were not implemented, the tower roof add-on armor, the Bugschutz of the chassis, the chassis and the splinter guard Tip visor. Added however was the rear video camera for the driver. The so-defined configuration was with the troops attempt Pattern 2 - mod in some publications as TVM second designated - 1993 tested in 1994 at the logistics attempts at technical school land systems and the Army College of Engineering joined. The design status during the follow-up examination in 1994 corresponded to the Leopard 2A5.

Leopard 2A5 KWS II

The Leopard 2A5 is the implementation of the Mannheim configuration known combat efficiency (KWS) level 2 Due to financing problems in the conversion of the Bundeswehr was the settlement in two lots, in 1995 to 1998 for Lot 1 (225 vehicles) and 1999 to 2002 for Lot 2 (125 vehicles). The changes to the 2A4 included an additional armor on the turret front, light chain covers the second and third generation (type in D technology with a straight bottom edge), new Kommandantenperiskop PERI R17A2 with private thermal imager (TIM,thermal imaging module ), a digital computer, an electric Waffennachführanlage, reversing camera and electro-pneumatic sliding hatch for the driver, splinter protection of Kevlar (Spall liners) at the tower inside, reinforced hub caps for the wheels, fitted with GPS and an inertial navigation system, and the preparation for the smoothbore gun L/55. The tanks are only alterations, consisting of the oldest towers (part of the 1st batch) and the latest tubs of lots 6, 7 and 8 These are easily recognized by the combination of Luke ammunition supplied welded to the tower and usually six-part heavy chain panel on the tub. The reason for this was that the tub did not have to be changed much, it has simply changed the driver's hatch and the rear-mounted camera. The towers have been completely revised, however, so here was the oldest used. The total cost was 347 million DM for Lot 1 and 272 million DM for Lot 2

Leopard 2A6

The Leopard 2A6 is based on the KWS-I program, Krauss-Maffei, with an increase in fire power should be achieved. The conversion at the tank therefore concerned mainly the weapon system. In detail, so for the new were 120-mm smoothbore gun L/55 the tube recoil brake and the trunnion bearing reinforced and adapted to fire and Waffennachführanlage. Of the old series, the weapon weighing tube, the smoke evacuator, the bottom piece and the wedge were taken. Completely renewed, however, the Feldjustieranlage, the pipe sleeve and the sleeve bag. This was based on 160 Leopard 2A5 and 65 Leopard 2A4, which were from the second batch of the KWS II upgraded directly to the A6. On 7 March 2001, the first 2A6 was passed by the manufacturer to the user and used in Tank Battalion 403rd.

In addition to these changes, a new KE ammunition was introduced. Described as LKE-2 ammunition penetrates depending on distance up to 1000 mm RHA and fulfills the requirements of the Armed Forces for hammering composite armor. As the well-known problem since the execution of the pollution 2A4 Feldjustieranlage proved when reversing. The armored troops school tested since then with a modified tank (mod 2A6) front panels (see Strv 121), which should prevent this. Furthermore, a new arrangement of the smoke grenade was tested, which was officially launched with the 2A6M and finds application in all variants.

Leopard 2A6M

The 2A6M corresponds to the 2A6 with additional mine protection. The modification consisted of the installation of a decoupled commander and charging shooters seat, a modified emergency hatch, an adaptable mine protection, torsion bar covers (to its "flying around" to prevent a mine explosion), covering the slip ring and a modified stowage attached objects on the ground. Particularly large and unusual changes in the driving position. Thus the conventional seat has been removed, and by a Suspended Dynamic Seat replaced.Developed by car this flight seat with integrated harness suspended over four straps to the vehicle ceiling, causing the seat and that the driver is decoupled from the rigid structure of the tank car. Since these straps are attached on retractors (retractor) to the vehicle ceiling, the rider's individual seat height (eye point) above and set under hatch almost infinitely. By further straps of the seat is then tightened so that the driver remains fixed in the event of a collision with another tank, or when rolling in its position. Using a spacer pad which is stored during the journey, the driver can determine the necessary minimum distance from the ground. This is absolutely necessary because the vehicle floor during an acting under the tub Ansprengung both plastically and elastically deformed, which in contact with serious consequences. In the development were Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland involved.

Combat efficiency - Stage III

An unconverted KWS was the level three. So from 2008, should the fighting power of the Leopard 2 with a 140-mm smoothbore gun and automatic loader in the turret rear increased. The tower crew should therefore be reduced to two men. At the same time by the installation of a computer system (Combat Forces Command and Control System IFIS) - known in the parlance of the Bundeswehr as a management and weapons control system (FüWES) IFIS - and powerful data radios to improve manageability. In 1995 it introduced the Ministry of Defence at a planning meeting in Waldbröl enter the KWS III. The funds were the project New Armoured platform allocated.

Leopard 2 UrbOp

This variant of the Leopard 2 is the implementation of the PSO concept of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann for the Bundeswehr. UrbOp stands for Urban operations and identifies simultaneously the required adjustments of the weapon system. So the troughs of the available 150 Leopard 2A6M serve as a chassis and are equipped with components of the PSO or prepared for it. These include among others the blade, improved front and side armor, the external intercom, the 360-degree camera system and the auxiliary power unit.The A6 towers can when used by so-called UrbOp modules - upgraded A4 towers - to be replaced. These 50 PSO towers be provided with an additional armor and get next to the remotely controlled weapon station, a guide system (IFIS), the White Light Illuminator, a new PERI with improved thermal imager and the air conditioning in the turret rear. As a weapon system the 120-mm smoothbore gun L/44 was provided. The Leopard 2 UrbOp is thus not new, but merely a modification and not always available. From July 2009, the experimental vehicle was Leopard 2 PSO-VT in this configuration in the trial.  In contrast to the previous plans, he was armed with the L/55-Glattrohrkanone.

This variant of the Leopard 2 is the implementation of the PSO concept of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann for the Bundeswehr. UrbOp stands for Urban operations and identifies simultaneously the required adjustments of the weapon system. So the troughs of the available 150 Leopard 2A6M serve as a chassis and are equipped with components of the PSO or prepared for it. These include among others the blade, improved front and side armor, the external intercom, the 360-degree camera system and the auxiliary power unit.The A6 towers can when used by so-called UrbOp modules - upgraded A4 towers - to be replaced. These 50 PSO towers be provided with an additional armor and get next to the remotely controlled weapon station, a guide system (IFIS), the White Light Illuminator, a new PERI with improved thermal imager and the air conditioning in the turret rear. As a weapon system the 120-mm smoothbore gun L/44 was provided. The Leopard 2 UrbOp is thus not new, but merely a modification and not always available. From July 2009, the experimental vehicle was Leopard 2 PSO-VT in this configuration in the trial. In contrast to the previous plans, he was armed with the L/55-Glattrohrkanone.

Variants Krauss-Maffei Wegmann

Leopard 2A6EX

The 2A6EX is a private sector development of the Leopards 2 of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann. As a basis, a Leopard 2A4 was the eighth contract section, the KMW 1998/1999 rebuilt as a presentation tank. The internally called Demo 1 battle tank corresponded to the features the Swedish Strv 122 with extra tanks and turret armor, air conditioning, Tip-visors, hydraulic chain tensioners and an auxiliary unit. KMW presented his version of a combat efficiency improvement program for the first time in 2002 at the Military Exhibition Eurosatory in Paris and Defendory in Athens. Provided with Spanish markings, he also attended the parade on 12 October 2002 to the National Day of Spain in part. As a commercial counterpart, the Spanish Leopard 2E and Leopard 2HEL of Greece can be seen.

Under the name of the Demo 2 battle tank with the smoothbore gun L/55 and with Euro Power Pack is provided as a drive. The Euro Power Pack consists of the diesel engine 883 and MTU and the gearbox HSWL 295 TM Renk. It requires the same power over the standard engine a meter less space in the engine compartment, but can not be replaced without major changes to the pan. Additional modifications are made ​​to the air flow, which prevents the suction of incendiary, and the heat radiation of the engine is reduced and fitted with a silencer for reducing noise.

Leopard 2 PSO/2A7 +

One of the latest versions of the Leopard 2 Leopard 2 PSO (is Peace Support Operations ) represents the beginning of KMW as a separate tender for deployment in local struggle , called MOUT inserts (Military Operations in Urban Terrain) developed the PSO has been since the admission of the interest by the German Army, in cooperation with the armored forces training center in Munster tested and improved. It serves as part of the Show of Force specifically peacekeeping and peacekeeping measures. The complete equipment is modular and can be adapted as needed. There is thus no fixed configuration.

As a basis for the demonstrator was the trough of the presentation Panzers demo 2 and a tower of the Leopard 2A5. It was equipped with a mine protection and an additional passive armor provided round. It is armed, he has the L/44 smoothbore gun and a remote-controlled weapon station with uncooled thermal imaging device on the rear turret roof. KMW used 2002 the autonomous weapons and monitoring station (AWBS) from GR program in Switzerland, which has been limited in terms of armament and the unarmored FLW 200was replaced with a Zeiss sensor box. Opposite the AWBS the weapons station is lighter, more flexible in taking up arms (for 5.56-mm to 12.7-mm machine gun or 40-mm automatic grenade launcher ) and has a wider range of elevation.

Obstacles and barricades for the battle tank was fitted with a dozer blade. Originally from civilian production plate corresponds to the design a snow plow with floating position and is only used for spaces.

To in any climate, in any weather and at night will be fully operational, are improved air conditioning ("fight room cooling system"), a stronger power supply and a 360-degree camera system integrated (MiniSight from Carl Zeiss Optronics) for visibility - with thermal imaging device and day vision for use at night or in adverse weather conditions. Since the tank in place and house fighting closely with the infantry works and support its members in their duties to an externally accessible communication platform situated on armor to the infantry allow both communication with the tank crew as well as the communication of the soldiers themselves.

For armaments fair Eurosatory 2010 KMW presented its final modification based on a presentation vehicle under the name Leopard 2A7 + and the cresting; Developed by KMW - tested and approved by the German Federal Ministry of Defence ( developed by KMW - tested and qualified by German MoD ). In this presentation vehicle only one side of the vehicle was equipped with the new armor that was left from the driver side of the vehicle armor is technically still at the level Leopard 2A5. When the front was fitted with the 122 known Strv of additional armor, the trough bottom had the protection of the Leopard 2A6M mine. The features of the 2A7 + was supplemented by a night drive system combined of image intensifier and thermal imager (VIRTUS from Carl Zeiss Optronics) for the driver, and a new derived from the Puma Kommandantenperiskop PERI RTWL. When they chose the cannon L/55 to the duel capability of the battle tank insymmetrical battle obtain.

Variant IBD Deisenroth Engineering

The company IBD Deisenroth Engineering presented 2008 under the name Leopard 2A4 Evolution her protection concept for the battle tank. Develops according to its own specification for an unspecified foreign buyers, the additional armor AMAP elected and hardfacing a demonstrator order. The variant Leopard 2A4 was combined with a ballistic protection (AMAP-B) with the protective AMAP SC against shaped charge projectiles and an enhanced mine protection (AMAP-M, AMAP-IED), and an interior panel, the liner (AMAP-L) is equipped. Of the roof cover (AMAP-R) in the extension protects Level 2 with a weight of 120 kg / m² against projectile-forming charge. The rear tank was a cage armor provided. As distance active protection system AMAP-ADS was selected and integrated 2009th The total weight of the demonstrator is 60 tonnes.

Other platforms based on Leopard

Based on the Leopard 2 tank other vehicles were introduced:

  • Driving school Leopard 2
  • Büffel (BPZ 3)
  • Pionierpanzer Kodiak (PiPz 3)
  • Howitzer 2000 (just the wheels)
  • Bridge Layer vehicle for the armored Quick Bridge 2
  • Bridge Layer vehicle for the armored bridge Quick Iguana


L/55 (in A6)
120 mm
120 mm
Tube length:
5280 mm
6600 mm
1190 kg
1347 kg
Pipe attachments:
50 kg
65 kg
Ground weapon system:
3780 kg
4160 kg

The leopard in other militaries


The Chilean Army has since the 14th November 2007, the first battle tank Leopard 2 series. The coming from the collection of military vehicles were refurbished by KMW and converted to Chile's needs. During contract negotiations, the number was increased several times. At the beginning, 118, the number increased later to 140, then to 172nd A purchase price of 88 million euros to be called, a majority of the combat tank is used for generation of spare parts. The contract also includes the supply of special tools, test equipment and training support, the latter was carried out by the army in the period from 2006 to 2008. Three battalions were equipped with the 2A4CHL. As Bergepanzer serve Dutch Bergepanzer 2 , which the company Flensburger vehicle combat performance increased to Bergepanzer 2000th .


The Danish military investigated the mid-1990s after a detachment of its Leopard 1A5-stocks. The forces in UNPROFOR , SFOR and KFOR to certain claims and ability catalog of the new main battle tank. There are no practical tests have been made ​​with other country-specific conversion kits, but, among others resorted to the Swedish experience.
The Danish combat troops school Haerens Kampskole in Oksbøl recommended to the government to buy the Leopard 2 with modifications. In December 1997 51 Leopard 2A4 were purchased from the collection of the German Army, the combat efficiency (KWS) was established roughly. The main battle tanks were equipped with radios and Danish Danish markings.

According to the KWS program already planned from 2002, the vehicles were brought to the state 2A5DK. The measures were a mix of the Mannheim configuration and the changes of the Swedish Strv 122nd This gave the tank the Bugzusatzpanzerung and the rear of the tower Strv 122, which was supplemented by the air conditioning MKK3. As the first Leopard 2 they received the 10-kW auxiliary power unit (APU) in the right hull rear, which was increased to slightly. The Israeli searchlight on the gun shield was installed due to the experience of the UN missions, to show potential conflict that they are under observation. On the turret roof was an additional storage box and stand mounts for the rifle M96 ( M16 derivative) installed and adjusted the Verstaukonzept the equipment. Following a restructuring of the armed forces in 2004, an additional 18 Leopard 2A4 were purchased from the collection of the Bundeswehr, six of whom were brought to the state 2A5DK.

Like Sweden, the military decided to heat tests in Spain, the Barracuda camouflage system with heat transfer system ( - HTC Heat Transfer Reduction System to use in order to lower the interior temperature and thus to maintain the performance of equipment and crew). The 2007 established Quick Reaction Force (faster Eingreifverband) for Iraq and Afghanistan were the first unit equipped with it.

After the death of a soldier in an attack on one of these tanks have been used in Afghanistan, retrofitted with a mine protection the company IBD Deisenroth Engineering equipped.Also implemented was the cage armor . Ammunition as well as the usual KE and MZ ammunition PELE and canister in use.


Finland received 2002-2003 German Leopard 2 A4 from Bundeswehr stocks to replace the T-55 and T-72 . GM1 Of the 124 battle tanks six serve as bridge layers with the armored bridge Quick Iguana (Leopard 2L, L = iguana), six as a flail tank (Leopard 2R, R = Raivaamis for break) and twelve for spare parts. The purchased at a later date 15 Leopard 2 will also help in obtaining spare parts or as replacement vehicles.

The leopard 2A4FIN corresponds technically to the German standard. In addition, the vehicles received more storage baskets, the radio Tadrin VRC-959, additional non slip surfaces, a Dreifarbtarnung and modifications to the existing storage boxes. The flap of the EMES 15 received a small hole that allows the gunner observing the flip closed. KE ammunition as the LKE-2 is used.

Since the end of June 2009 examined Finland the possibility of combat efficiency.


Greece is another NATO partner that uses the Leopard 2. The Greek Government appointed in March 2003, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2A6 170 with a total value of 1.7 billion euros. The price also includes twelve Büffel eight Brückenlegepanzer iguana on Leopard 1 chassis, two vehicles and a shooting simulator, as well as technical support and spare parts for two years. The vehicles comply with the Design Level A6 and are considered the most modern Leopard 2 at the time of delivery of the test vehicle from 2005 (Series of 2006).Shall dispose of the tanks with air conditioning, an auxiliary power unit (English auxiliary power unit , APU), add-on armor and country-specific equipment such as radios and camouflage. Total manufactures KMW 30 tanks in Germany and the remaining 140 were to 2009 in Greece by the Hellenic Vehicle Industry ( ELBO produced), which corresponds to a volume of 557 million euros for the local defense industry. The marking of the tank is Leopard 2A6 HEL. Another used variant is the Leopard 2A4 from German Army stocks. Greece has a total of 183 tanks, of which 130 will be modernized by KMW and Rheinmetall Land Systems. Changes include the repair, a new camouflage, new radios and other minor changes. As part of the conversion, Rheinmetall Defence Electronics also provides electronic Prüfausstattungen, guidance systems for battalion command posts and added the depot testing facility in the Greek Velestino. Greece paid a total of 270 million euros for the purchase, which included an additional 150 Leopard 1A5 as a bridge to the delivery of the A6.

Since 2008 it is known that KMW has claims in the amount of 480 million euros to Greece. Sun, the company delivered 100 tanks, of which only 20 have been paid. According to the Managing Director Frank Haun lack of money causes increasing liquidity problems.

According to the Greek media payments to KMW but were adjusted because cracks in the tower hatches of 40 Leopard 2A6HEL were discovered. The Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials and supplies (WIWeB) of the BWB was appointed to investigate the cracks. For troubleshooting products made ​​in Greece Leopard 2, the cracks filled with resin and reinforced the damaged area by a steel ring. The outstanding claims amounted to 2010 100 million euros in August.


Canada has since 2007 been the Leopard 2 and therefore decided against the purchase of a Radpanzers with 105-mm gun. Originally, the M1128 Stryker MGS remaining Leopard C2, a variant of the Leopard 1 substitute. The late maturity of the Stryker MGS and the positive operational experience since 2006 with the Leopard C2 in southern Afghanistan has pushed the government to find a successor. An inquiry in February 2007 to the German government led to 20 Leopard 2A6M and two armored recovery vehicle 3 of the Bundeswehr stocks were leased for two years to meet the mission-related immediate needs. The contract also included an agreement for logistical support for the operation, including the training of Canadian tank crews and maintenance personnel by the armed forces.  The original in September 2009 expired agreement was extended until the end of 2010.
The fighting and armored recovery vehicles were at Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Rheinmetall Land Systems modified from where it in August and September 2007 with the Strategic Airlift Interim Solution was deployed to Afghanistan. The first modified by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann Leopard 2 was born on 2 August 2007 presented. The name is Leopard 2A6M CAN.
On 12 April 2007, the Canadian Department of Defense with that as part of the tank replacement project procurement of 100 surplus Leopard 2 (80 A4NL, 20 A6NL) is made ​​in the value of $ 650 million held by the Netherlands. The option to purchase 80 German A4 was not pursued. The conclusion of the contract in December of that year, sealed the purchase. The first Leopard 2 of the Netherlands arrived to Canada in late 2008. Another twelve vehicles of the type 2A4 were purchased in 2011 from Switzerland. They serve as a platform for protected special vehicles.
The A6NL be brought from Canada to the German Rüststand A6M and returned to Germany instead of leased vehicles. Instead of the planned conversion of 20 A4NL the A6M CAN as a hybrid solution is the preferred option. The aim of this concept is to tank for the asymmetric battlefield and the symmetrical battle to obtain. The order was made ​​on 16 to KMWJune 2009 and was implemented in July 2009 with the arrival of the vehicles. The modifications are in the works Kassel (tower) and Munich (bath) conducted and should be completed by May 2011.
We first started with the designation 2A4 (Ops) CAN + defined the L/55-Bordkanone, the electric turret drive, an IED protection and armouring as possible modification. on the use of cage armor is to be omitted, as in this has proven use in narrow paths often considered a disadvantage. In addition, they will receive the C6 GPMG as secondary armament.For another 42 A4NL, primarily used for training, a partial conversion is provided. The functions performed by Rheinmetall Canada changes should be completed by early 2012 and bring the tanks on Canadian equipment standards. The total cost of modernization and rehabilitation be EUR 17 million.  The remaining vehicles are provided for conversion to pioneer and recovery tanks. A minimum of 13 vehicles is scheduled for conversion as armored engineering.
On October 7, 2010 KMW handed the first of 20 modernized battle tanks. The final name is Leopard 2A4M CAN, featuring the armored variant of Canada for the asymmetric battlefield. The vehicles have the L/44-Bordkanone, hydraulic chain tensioners, a storage box for hand guns on the turret roof, a digital-electric turret drive and a cage armor on tower and hull rear. The additional armor on the turret sides, the turret front, the hull sides and topside have the level of protection of the 2A7 + . The tower attachment modules are wedge-shaped again.
The mine protection has been implemented as well as the A6M by a mine protection plate, torsion bar covers and decoupled from the floor seats. Plating elements behind the wheels also enhance the protection against mines. A system for electronic countermeasures (Electronic Counter Measure System - ECM), can interfere with the wireless and mobile frequencies protects against remote detonated unconventional explosive and incendiary device (radio controlled improvised explosive devices - RCIED). The fire extinguishing system of halon on nitrogen changed and replaced the commander of the operating unit, the operating unit and the loader's central logic / main distribution of the fire control system with new systems. The driver received a thermal imaging camera at front and rear possible even in poor weather conditions to control the vehicle. The Barracuda camouflage system with heat-transfer system, as well as Denmark does it also apply. Further features include cooling vests, air conditioning and radios typical amenities. As aperture and anti-aircraft machine gun is the C6 GPMG. The combat weight reached 61.8 tons.
A pioneer equipment interface on the front of mine roller, mine plow or plow blade extends the range and allows the re-use of imported systems.
The armor for the battle to ensure balanced with the A6M the Bundeswehr. The tanks received an additional bow plate, a cage armor, the Barracuda camouflage system with heat transfer system, Canadian radio with antenna system, a storage box for the Diemaco-C8 assault rifle ( M16 derivative) on the roof, a jammer (Counter-IED ) and Kühlhutze for EWNA. On the scaffolding of the air conditioning was not undertaken because these changes would have been too large. The crew was equipped with cooling vests. Secondary armament as it remained MG3 being in the country through the Canadian tankers as antiaircraft the C6 GPMG was used as the hatch ring of the loader the Leopard 1 and 2 is identical. The other hand, a modification was made ​​in the country of use, allowing the armed forces the hitch of the Leopard 1 in order to use refill Roller, TWMP mine plow and the plow blade on some Leopard 2 can be used to. Apart from the usual tank ammunition from Canada will also grapeshot ammunition fired.
As with battle tanks received the leased Büffel a combat value. The upgrade included a mine protection, ballistic protection, the cage armor, typical radio system, cooling vests and a broader sweeping and support shield.
Used were the Leopard 2 of the Task Force Kandahar . Used in the early days yet with the Leopard C2 together they use the reserve and faster Eingreifverband (Quick Reaction Force) Task Force (TF) in advanced military base Masum Ghar, district Panjwai . Under Canadian armed forces of tanks has since been used in every major operation of the TF.The deployment ended in 2011 with the withdrawal of combat troops


In 2009 it was announced that Qatar intends to buy 36 Leopard 2 tanks. The former red-black coalition agreed to this request. Arms deals of this type with Arab states were in deference to Israel not yet been adopted. Ahead Israel was informed of the intention to sell, but there were no objections.  2012 was to Qatar, to be interested in 200 Leopard 2 tanks.


On 2 March 1979 the Netherlands decided the first foreign customer for the purchase of the Leopard 2 The tanks corresponded to Lot 2 and 3, however with new radio system, new smoke grenade system (NL-standard), AA-MG, TMG by Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre Belgium and BIV driving unit of Dutch production. Due to the close cooperation between Germany and the Netherlands also was a technology exchange, the results of which were included in the models of German tank production. The procurement of 445 vehicles was completed in July 1986. Due to the transformations in the army was followed by a sale of 114 Leopard 2 (NL) to Austria, 330 were under the KWS II program converted to the booth A5 (NL). As with the Bundeswehr 180 Leopard 2 A5 (NL) were combat performance increased to the level A6 and 38 A6NL to Portugal and sold 20 in Canada. The active component was around 73 A6NL. Ten Leopard 2A4NL were Rheinmetall Land Systems for Kodiak rebuilt. Under the name Bergingstank 600kN also is Büffel used in the country-specific features.In April 2011, the Dutch government announced the decision to forego due to austerity measures on all Leopard 2.


Norway from 2001 to 2002 bought second hand vehicles, which were acquired by the Netherlands. The 52 Leopard 2A4NL replaced the decommissioned Leopard 1A1NO. The tanks were given back to the original multi-launcher and typical radio and intercom system. In addition, a data management system with appropriate radio and integrated GPS antenna and a larger storage box mounted on the turret rear. Termed 2A4NO Leopard 2 are also technically unchanged. The 2009 combat efficiency has not begun.


The Austrian government decided in 1996 under the Mech package purchase of 114 surplus Leopard 2A4 of the Dutch army, and prepared it for three tank battalions. It was tanks, which were built between December 1984 and December 1985 and delivered as Leopard 2A3 in the Dutch army. Feature of this series is the sealed munitions hatch on the left side of the turret. The vehicles were with the Dutch smoke grenade dischargers, a Dutch radio equipment and a Belgian 7.62 mm FN MAG machine gun equipped for loader.Meanwhile, some vehicles were fitted with a new smoke grenade system and new antennas. Also, the tanks were equipped with intercom system VIC-3-0 from Rovi. 2006, the number reduced to two tank battalions and 40 of the 2011 surplus Leopard tanks sold back to the manufacturer KMW. Canada, another customer has been outbid it.


The Polish army has since 2002 on the Leopard 2A4. The 128 cars are from Bundeswehr stocks, mostly from the dissolved tank battalions 294 and 304 The obsolete tanks were introduced technically unchanged. Used to be in the 1st 2A4PL and second Tank Battalion of the 10th Polish Armoured Cavalry Brigade, which is one of the rapid reaction forces of NATO.


Portugal since 2008, has over 37 Leopard 2 A6 from the holdings of the Netherlands. The 2001 treaty signed in Lisbon the Secretaries of State for Defence Cees van Kamp and João Mira Gomes provides educational support in addition to the vehicles, spare parts and ammunition supplies through the Netherlands. The delivery was completed in 2009. Divided into three squadrons of the 2A6PRT replace the M60A3 TTS .


In the 1980s, proposed the Saudi military to buy the Leopard 2. However, the business came despite promises made ​​by Helmut Schmidt(Chancellor until 1982) and Franz Josef Strauss not materialize because the resistance within the then federal government proved to be too large. The federal government under Helmut Kohl stood by its 1983 decision taken not to supply the weapon system to a potential enemy of Israel.

In early July 2011, the approval of the Federal Security to an export of two hundred Leopard 2A7 + to Saudi Arabia subject of public debate, including in the German Bundestag .Opponents of arms exports made ​​to the human rights situation in Saudi Arabia , whose undemocratic form of government and opposition to Israel and the participation of the Saudi armed forces in the crackdown on protests in Bahrain in 2011 . The federal government cited the confidentiality of the decisions of the Security Council , the non-existence of objections to the export from the Israeli government and the role of Saudi Arabia in the fight against terrorism .
In May 2012, plans were announced that 200-300 armor of the Spanish e-version to be bought from the arms company Santa Bárbara Sistemas. By King Juan Carlos has been threaded arms deal should be handled by the Spanish Ministry of Defence, which ensures the maintenance of the tank, provides the necessary ammunition and is liable for possible complaints.


During the development of the Leopard 2 in Germany examined the Swiss Army , the ways their obsolete Centurion replace stocks.There were the options of the new development, the planting or the purchase of a foreign production vehicle. Under the leadership of the company Contraves (now Rheinmetall Defence ) examined the Swiss arms industry the possibility of a new main battle tank (NKPZ). The project was launched on 3 December 1979 set. The risks of this new development and the associated costs were considered too high.Then each, two car types M1 and Leopard 2 rented and tested. On 9 March 1981, the Leopard 2 were transferred from the holdings of the Bundeswehr with slight modifications. Thus the vehicles received a 71-mm-area lighting system type Lyran and a VRC-radio system with transmit and receive antennas of the type HX 101 A1. After extensive comparison tests - which lasted from August 1981 to June 1982 - it was decided to buy the Leopard 2. Reasons for this included the former series production and the direct participation of the Swiss industry and thus a lower cost than purchasing the M1. In May 1983 the company Contraves an offer for the licensed, on the 11th Was approved in December 1984 by the Swiss National Council. The total number amounted to 380 Leopard 2, of which 35 were to be produced directly from Krauss-Maffei. The final production of the remaining 345 were in Thun . The final designation was Panzer 87 Leopard.

The Panzer 87 corresponds to the construction of the fifth stand A4 contract section of the Bundeswehr. It is characterized by three additional supports for ten snow grab the tower, a U.S. car radio system ON / VCR 12, Swiss MG 87 , contour changes on the turret rear by an outboard station, hydraulic chain tensioners and a modified NBC ventilation system.A key feature is the muffler at the rear. This reduces noise and complies with the EC Directive 70/157. Also used are 25 and 12 Büffel Kodiak, which are built by RUAG on surplus Leopard 2 chassis.

Since 2006 134 tanks are a value preservation program (combat efficiency) subjected. The conversions include the improvement of leadership, a rearview camera with display driver, an electrical tower and arms drive and a new Kommandantenperiskop with thermal imaging device . The total cost amounts to 395 million Swiss francs . The designation was changed to 87 Leopard tanks WE. The 2006 planned weapon station and the additional armor on the turret and mine protection are not implemented.Furthermore, the intention of the Swiss Army procurement of modern DM53 and DM63 ammunition. Full deliveries from 2008 to 2011.

Of the remaining non-upgraded tanks were converted to twelve genius and Minenräumpanzern. A further 42 units were sold at the end of 2010, Rheinmetall, where the tanks will also be converted into special versions and then exported.


Another arms exports is the Stridsvagn 121 and 122 according to Sweden . In the years 1984 to 1987, the Swedish military was looking under the MBT-2000 -350 program, a detachment of their Centurions and Stridsvagn 103 . The chosen path of self-development Strv 2000was abandoned in 1989 as too expensive.
The Swedish Procurement Agency Försvarets Materielverk (FMV) examined from 1993 to Leclerc , the M1A2 Abrams and the Leopard 2, the enhanced version. Pattern served as the troops attempt pattern maximum (Leopard 2 improved) from the program of the German Federal Armed Forces. After extensive test drives and winter test fulfilled the Leopard 91% of the requirements, the Abrams 86% and 63% of the Leclerc. In January 1994, the contract was signed, giving 160 Leopard 2A4 (Stridsvagn 121) was leased for 15 years. As ammunition supplier was Israel Military Industries elected.
The Stridsvagn 121 (120-mm gun, first run) were unchanged Leopard 2 from the contract sections 1 to 5 with the radio system SEM 25/35 of the Bundeswehr. The upgrade included only Swedish standard radios. The Stridsvagn 122 (120-mm gun, second version) is a greatly improved Leopard 2A5. The total number amounts to 120 vehicles with options for an additional combat and armored recovery vehicles. Like the Swiss Panzer 87 the majority of the vehicles were manufactured in the beneficiary country. When contractors were Hägglunds and Bofors, currently (2006) BAE Systems , prime contractor remained Krauss-Maffei Wegmann.
The Stridsvagn 122 differs by an additional total armor ( MEXAS -heavy) at the front of the vehicle including Bombletschutz for the turret roof, a guidance system ( Tank Command and Control System (TCCS)), modified side skirts and the galix-smoke grenade launcher system of the execution 121st The digital fire control was extended to twelve memory slots for ammunition types, changed the engine cooling system to prevent the intake of incendiary devices and the torsion bars to the increased combat weight of 62.5 tonnes adjusted.A front spoiler reduces the damage Feldjustieranlage and also reduces the formation of shadows. The Barracuda Tarnnetzsystem ( MCS; Multi Spectrum Cover System ) reduces the infrared and thermal radiation from the tank and breaks its contours.
The version Stridsvagn 122B has the additional mine protection and put into storage. The combat weight is t the 65th NamedBärgningsbandvagn 120 also the Büffel used. Substantially modified, have the 14 performance-enhanced versions on the TCCS, GPS, a rear mountains means a rearview camera, an additional winch liner for battle space and the galix-smoke grenade system.


Singapore has since mid-2007 on the Leopard 2 The used 2A4 come from Bundeswehr stocks and replaced the AMX-13 . Originally the contract in late 2006, a total number of 96 vehicles, including 30 for spare parts agreed. With the inflow of emergency vehicles the number increased so that 102 battle tanks in the service. Current under the symbol Leopard 2A4SGP vehicles have the machine gun FN MAG by FN Herstal and typical country-specific radios. Used the Leopard 2 was first used during the exercise Wallaby in Australia in late 2008. In order to increase the protection concept, the tank subsequently equipped with the evolution package of IBD Deisenroth Engineering and Singapore's National Day 2010 will present to the public.


Mid-1980s sought Spain for a new battle tank, which should be developed by German companies. Thus, the arms company Krauss-Maffei conceived under the working title LINCE a 49-tonne tank with a 120-mm smoothbore gun, which resembled in appearance to the Leopard 2. With this concept, the company participated in 1984 at the public tender in which also GIAT (AMX 40 and LECLERC),General Dynamics (M1 Abrams), Vickers (Valiant) and Oto Melara (C-1 Ariete participated). After a further ten years in which no decision was made ​​in November 1994, talks took on the edge of the ministerial meeting of the Western European Union (WEU) again in Noordwijk (Netherlands) movement in the purchase of a new main battle tank for Spain. Thus, a MoU was signed in the short term 108 Leopard 2 provided over five years from 1998 as a loan and the purchase of 390 new Leopard 2. Due to lack of budget and the privatization of the state arms company Santa Bárbara Sistemas purchase intent was not implemented. In 1998, two years later, the Spanish cabinet decided to buy now 219 Leopard 2E, 16 mountains tanks 3 and the acquisition of 108 Leopard 2A4 from the holdings of the Bundeswehr.Santa Bárbara Sistemas acted as general contractor.

Further diminished the business was in 1999 after the takeover of Santa Bárbara Sistemas by the U.S.

company General Dynamics.Krauss-Maffei and the German government feared the sellout of German engineering. Due to the acquisition was started production in 2003 and this lasted until the year 2008.

The Leopard 2E has the same design of the Leopard 2A6 of the German Army, but has many improvements and changes using the available technology. For instance, the armor on the L/55-Glattrohrkanone, a thermal imaging device of the 2nd Generation Raytheon commander and gunner, a new track, radios from Thales, a cooling system in the turret rear, a generator unit right in the hull rear, improved night vision device for the driver, a tailor Spanish Requirements Management and Information System LINCE ( Leopard Information and Communication Equipment ) and an additional bath and turret armor.


In 1999 it was announced that the Turkey intend to buy 1000 Leopard 2.  Thereupon Krauss-Maffei Wegmann an export application to the federal government, leading to severe crisis coalition ( SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens led). Refused then the coalition partner Alliance 90/The Greens to agree to export. Winfried Nachtwei , a defense expert of the Greens, told the daily newspaper Die Welt , a supply would be regarded by the Kurds as "distrust building measure", "and thus would not be what in the reform process in Turkey, "fit. , It was decided to grant Turkey presentation tanks Demo 1 (1999 2A5) to leave for the comparative testing of KMW, its use was limited, at which explicitly 29th November 1999 at a meeting of the German Bundestag Ruprecht Polenz (CDU / CSU) with the words "He's coming back again!" reaffirmed. The planned purchase did not take place.

After comparative tests in Eastern and Central Anatolia in 2001 chose the Turkish army, over the alternatives from the USA (M1A2 Abrams), France (Leclerc 2) and Ukraine ( T 84-120 Yatagan to) the Leopard 2 prefer.

On 11 November 2005, with the German government that held by the Armed Forces 298 Leopard 2A4 would be sent to Turkey. As grounds for the positive transformation of Turkey was given. The contract amounts to EUR 365 million, of which about 70 million euro for the modernization of tanks in the German armaments industry. The deal was completed in 2007,  However, Turkey decided in mid-2007 for the procurement of additional planned battle tanks to the South Korean K2 Black Panther to manufacture under license. The project is under the name " ALTAY MBT " .