Saturday, August 25, 2012

Leopard 1

The Leopard 1 is a medium battle tank from German production. It was built in 1965 and was the first tank, which in Germany after the Second World War has been developed. He came to a total of twelve countries on four different continents.Through constant struggle appreciation and a variety of retrofit options he is despite his advanced age and the 21st Century can still be found in armies of many countries. Until 1984, a total of 4744 units of this type were produced

Leopard 1
4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)
9.55 m of pipe at 12 clock
at 8.17 m pipe at 6 clock
3,37 m
2,62 m
42,5 t
Armor steel bulkhead plating in towers (A3, A4, AS1. C1)
Main armament
British 105-mm L7A3 with 28 trains
Secondary armament
2 × 7.62-mm MG3 (coaxial and AA-MG on tower), smoke grenade
MTU MB 838 CaM500 10-Zylinder-Vielstoffmotor
610 kW (830 PS)
Torsion bar
Top speed
65 km / h
Power / weight
A4: 14.4 kW / t (19.6 PS / t)
A5: 14.3 kW / t (19.4 PS / t)
562 km ride in convoy with torque converter lockup,
easy terrain 386 km,
246 km heavy terrain
Fuel tank capacity: 985 l


The rearmament of the Federal Republic in the mid-1950s led to the initial supply the Bundeswehr with U.S. and British armored vehicles.The German armaments industry at the time was not able to connect to the advanced armor development since 1945. With the support of foreign manufacturers tried Daimler-Benz , however, catch up with the developed areas. Together with the Porsche KG , the ZF , the Ruhr Stahl AG and the Indian Tata Group of India, a main battle tank developed. This project failed.

The findings allowed Porsche to participate in the development of the first main battle tank for the Bundeswehr. On 23 November 1956, one of the NATO -out standards of appropriate list of demands. Should the main battle tanks have a total weight of 30 tons and yet highly flexible and maintenance-friendly. Armor and firepower were secondary. The decision agility to sit in front armor protection is justified because that available at the time armor technology no reasonable protection against shaped charge projectiles offered. In addition, had the experience of World War II demonstrated that a good operational flexibility of high importance was. In June 1957, France and Germany concluded a military agreement, which aimed to develop a common battle tanks. In coordination with the Ministry of Defence (DEFA) published the Federal Ministry of Defence (MoD) on 25 July 1957, the new requirements. These were: 30 tons gross weight,multi-fuel engine with a power to weight ratio of 30 hp / t, technology up to date and a maximum width of 3.15 meters.  The focus was especially on the main armament and their target and aiming devices. Sun marksmanship, day and night, and a penetration capability of 150 millimeters thick were steel tanks at 30 ° inclined impact surface and a distance from 2000 to 2500 meters required. The armor should protect against short-range 20-mm projectiles, and an NBC protective ventilation system for use in nuclear contaminated terrain allow for 24 hours.

A year later, on 1 April 1958 was followed by an addition of receivables. Germany intended to increase the maximum width of 3.25 meters, France but wanted to reduce it to 3.10 meters. In September 1958, Italy joined in the development community.
On 6 May 1959 there was an agreement on the development and construction of two prototypes I with the groups A, B and the DEFA.The Federal Office for Defence Technology and Procurement (BWB) unwound the project. There were three community agencies to meet this challenge:

  • Working Group A : The Porsche company, Atlas MaK, Luther works and young Jungenthal.
  • Group B : The company Ruhrstahl, Rheinstahl Hanomag and Henschel Rheinstahl
  • Group C : The company CFW Borgward was the cost of developing some alone. After the collapse of the company in 1961 the armor development has been discontinued. In addition, the implementation of the draft of the Ministry of Defence was deemed too risky.

The company Rheinmetall and Wegmann took over the tower manufacturing. A total of four prototypes in Germany and a prototype were manufactured in France. The financing of all prototypes took over Germany.

Based on the insights developed the Working Groups A and B the prototype II, Group B in October 1961, the work stopped due to technical difficulties and savings and delivered only two of six battle tanks. In April 1963, the comparative tests of the working groups were completed. The tank was on 11 Presented in July 1963 under the name "standard tanks" to the public. At the same time ran the production of the initial batch (Porsche number 814) with 50 tanks, which was launched in June 1961. They were based on the prototype II and served in the trial of the WTD  91 in Meppen. The highlight was a comparison test of the then unnamed German standard armor against the French tanks of the type AMX 30 . She found under Italian management in August 1963 on the training area Mailly-le-Camp held in the Champagne and put the high performance of the German model to the test. It was despite six tons more weight around ten percent faster and accelerated by 18 percent better than its French counterpart.

Given the revised defense strategy in France to 1965 were no funds for the tank manufacturing will be prepaid. However intended, the Bundeswehr, their M47 to replace. Sun agreed on a national tank manufacturing and put the armor on 1 November 1963, under the name "Leopard." The "baptism" was held on 4 Held in October 1963, on the instructions of the Joint Staff of the Army by the company commander of the 2nd Company of the Panzer Lehr Battalion 93, Captain Schmidt. On 9 September 1965 took over Defence Minister Kai-Uwe von Hassel, the first mass-produced battle tank, the Krauss-Maffei  AG (now Krauss-Maffei Wegmann ) in Munich rolled off, and handed him over to the 4th Company of the 93rd Battalion, Panzer Lehr For the introduction of first 1500 battle tanks of this type began in the associations of I. and III. Corps of the Bundeswehr . Until 1968, the Bundeswehr increased its order to 1845 vehicles with an option for 111 more.

After the series production Porsche received the contract for a further development. Then a house under the name was gilded Leopard study elaborated on the 6th July 1965 asproposals to increase combat power value of the battle tank Leopard submitted. It was suggested: increasing the rate of fire by an automatic loader, increasing the probability of a hit, more indicative range of the main gun, stronger Koaxialwaffe, remote-controlled anti-aircraft machine gun, more powerful engine (809 kW) with improved cooling system, improved turret front and an improved chassis includes springs and armor protection. In 1967, the study was terminated.

By difficulty in Tank-70 project saw the Ministry of Defense initiated the project gilded Leopard with the end goal of a new development and the combat efficiency of the Leopard firstDue to the development contract for battle tanks 70 and the prohibition of the development project started by the term experimental development with a total of 32 million DM, of which only 25 million were approved. On 7 November 1968, the defense ministry concluded the contract with Krauss-Maffei. The tank had a total weight of 40 tons and already resembled the Leopard 2 . As in 1969, the project failed 70 battle tanks, was commissioned by the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement by Krauss-Maffei, a study by the name "Eber" built. This armor combined the technology of the battle tank 70 with the conventional tank construction. The funded with 25 million development was presented to Krauss-Maffei and its partners as an experimental development "boar". With the decision in 1970 to build the Leopard 2 battle the gains were rejected and on the basis of the "Boar" started the new development.

The total cost of the development, prototyping, field trials and other totaled 249,030,222  German Marks . The last battle tank Leopard 1A5 in 2003 with the decommissioning of the tank battalion 74 taken in Cuxhaven / Altenwalde from active duty in the Armed Forces.



The leopard is based on the Porsche Type 814 and is a further development of the 0-series. Designed as tower tank in a conventional arrangement, it has a 4-man crew. The commander is to the right of the tower, beneath him at his feet sits the gunner, on the other side of the cannon, and thus left the loader. The tub houses one ammunition holder next to the driver for the main weapon and NBC protection- and ventilation system, which by drawing outside air via filters one overpressure generated. In the engine room there is a muffler, the exhaust gases are mixed with fresh air and thus the infrared signature reduced. Against fire only has the engine room a fire suppression system. The extinguishing agent is Halon . The four chemical containers are located at the driver. Two of the containers trigger automatically, two more can be triggered manually.

By building an underwater elevator shaft and submersible hydraulic water, up to a maximum depth of four meters are crossed. It all hatches are closed except for the Commander. The submersible hydraulic closes while loading and vents on the motor and a combustion air damper opens to the engine bulkhead in the tank interior. About this the engine sucks when wading, wading deep and underwater driving to the combustion air through the commander's hatch with fitted Tiefwat or underwater landing. The Commander stands for the drive-through in this shaft and supports the driver when driving. At the same time the shaft is in an accident than Notaustieg. Since entry of water can not be avoided completely, the leopard has two bilge pumps .
The tank is full night fighting and limited all-weather capability. It is possible to install a residual light amplifier driver and loader . Here, a is angle mirror away.


The tub is made ​​of welded steel armor and is separated by a transverse bulkhead in combat and the machine room. Is 70 mm and the Bugpanzerung is set obliquely at an angle of 30 °, which corresponds to a penetration length of 140 millimeters. The side armor is an average of 30/35 mm, tank bottom and rear are 20 and 25 mm thick armor plates.

The armor thickness of the cast towers of up to 60 millimeters, which were thickened at A2 and reinforced in later combat efficiency program through rubberized steel plates. By far and in addition to the turret front shock damping (with shock mounts mentioned rubber elements) on the basic armor plates were bolted to reduce the task of approaching missiles detonate early and explosive energy. The towers of the models A3 and A4 were welded and had a bulkhead armor with the same level of protection. Subsequent add-on armor was not there. With nine tons of iron tower of Wegmann compared with twelve tons was the M48 or 15 tonnes of Chieftain relatively easy.

Drive and drive

As drive was torsion bar sprung support roller drive selected. The seven pairs of rollers are connected to the torsion bars on swing arms, wherein the first three and the last two rollers each provided with a hydraulic shock absorber is provided. Volute springs limit the scale of the swing arms. As a caterpillar in the early years was a rubber-mounted connector track with solid rubber padding in the fifth contract section by a "living" Endverbinderkette with replaceable pads chain was replaced by the manufacturer Diehl.

The engine of the Leopard 1 is a MB 838 CaM500 with two  mechanical chargers for Daimler-Benz, built by MTU Friedrichshafen . In contrast to the requirement of multi-fuel operation was the diesel engine is not immediately possible, and was implemented later. The total power of 610 kW at 37.4 liters is higher than that of used in the prototype engines Aa 837 and 838 CA500 . Total motor over ten cylinders, arranged in a V-shape has inclined at 90 ° to each other. A dry sump forced lubrication ensures even at extreme inclination for an oil supply for all lubrication points.  The shifting of the planetary transmission with four forward and two reverse gears run electro-hydraulically. The steering of the integrated overlay steering transmission is dependent on engine speed and vehicle speed. A novelty in the engine design was the combination of engine, cooling system and switching and steering gear in an engine block. This design permits quick couplings by a rapid separation of the electric and fuel circuit. The change of the entire Leopard-1-engine takes with pre-and post about 30 minutes. Its successor, the Leopard 2, this time could be reduced by half. The batteries and thus the electrical system work with 24 volts DC . Generator is a generator with an output of 9 kW.

For hot regions and high outside temperatures Krauss-Maffei developed a so-called Tropical kit. This retrofit kit could the cooling and fuel system are modified. Another Weapon module improved the cross-country through the use of hydraulic Endanschlagsdämpfer and an optimized stator reduced.


Weapon system

The main armament consists of the German license production L7A3 widespread British high performance gun Royal Ordnance L7 . The gun is at a caliber of 105 mm 51 caliber long, equipped with a smoke evacuator and then provided as usual, with a box / train-profile. The swivel range of the tower is 360 °, the elevation of the gun range from -9 ° to +20 °. Housed the cannon next to the tower crew in the turret. The straightening and pivoting action of the electro-hydraulic Waffennachführanlage runs.

The modification of the A1 in 1971 and the matching of the first building lots received the gun a thermal sleeve to compensate for the Temperaturbeinflussung in sunlight, rain and snow - essential - to warping due to the heating of a shot. When using the NBC protection system, the main weapon only use up the ammunition already in the tube. The automatic opening of the closure is blocked (by extracting the leading slope), but it can be done manually, but this causes the ABC safety is no longer assured. As secondary armament is a coaxially disposed to cannon machine gun and a rotatable by 360 ° anti-aircraft gun on the tower. The weapons can, as with the smoke grenade, vary depending on country.

To at maneuvers , exercises or during training represent it fired cannons without live fire, has the Leopard 1 over recordings for the kadag (K anonen- A bschuss- DA rstellungs- G equipm ent), often also under the abbreviation Darkas ( DAR position - K -anonen A b S chuss known). Cannon mounted on the rear, it simulates the firing of the main weapon resulting bang, smoke and lightning.

Weapon stabilization

The tank has since version A2 a gyroskopgesteuerte weapon stabilization system, that is, the cannon remains on movements always focused on their goal. The former technique - stabilizing the weapon and tracking of optics - but primarily served only to better target reconnaissance and observation during the movement in order to minimize the holding otherwise required shooting for the opening of the fire fight. With a practiced a fire fighting crew from the movement was partly possible. A high first hit as the Leopard 2, however, was to use the fire control in the 1A5 can not be implemented.

Fire control and aiming equipment

The distance is measured in front of the Leopard 1A5 optomechanically . The tower rangefinder (TEM) with 16-fold magnification was up to the Leopard 1A4 at the heart of the fire control system, enabling the gunner to determine distances to the mix - or space image principle . The elevation angle of the loaded ammunition from the gunner manually by a lever. The Leopard 1A4 was equipped with the optical space image rangefinder EMES 12A1. The second objective of the tower unit scope (TZF) stood with 8-fold magnification.

Vacancies in the TEM, it was intended as Notzielgerät, the shooting distance was estimated and adjusted by means of a scale in the reticle for that ammunition. It also allowed the fire fight in the movement because of the weapons parallel installation in the panel transferred the weapon stabilization on this look. The Turmrundblickpankrad (TRP) was the commander as an observation, target and distance measuring instrument. If necessary, he could see the gunner over full control, even in an emergency to keep the fire fight. The stabilized Rundblickperiskop PERI R12 in the Leopard 1A4 allowed contrast to the commander for the first time to look for goals during the trip and the gunner assigned. There was this variant hunter / killer capability.

For the night of the fight battle tanks initially possessed a IR-/Weißlicht-Schießscheinwerfer for target illumination. Was illuminated with infrared light, the commander had to take over the shoot, because the TRP was replaced by an infrared scope. The night fighting ability of 1A4 was by switching the PERI R12 reached on the IR channel. The spotlight has been distributed and used in battle could therefore use only from the state. Thus alternately took on the task of illuminating light tanks, while a second armored fighting the enemy.The settings of the headlight were springy when searching or bundled for target illumination in the fight. In the early years only a few battle tanks were fitted with the gun lights. Only the vehicles of drivers and the company commanders possessed the XSW-30-U of AEG-Telefunken for target illumination. The average combat distance of 2.5 miles per day decreased by shooting lights on 1.2 kilometers to 1.5 kilometers. With the introduction of the residual light amplifier PZB 200 this form of combat operations was increasingly meaningless.
With the last combat capability upgrade to 1A5 commander and gunner were a common thermal imaging device , which was placed with the Laserentferungsmesser (LEM) in the main target device EMES-18. With the WBG-X of the Zeiss range reconnaissance increased enormously over the PZB 200th Sun milestones have also a day - depending on weather conditions - are discovered at a distance up to 3000 meters and 2000 meters at identified. The fire control system adapted the Leopard 2 was directing and shooting easier for the gunner. In addition, was the setting of the loaded ammunition of the EMES by the loader's by tracers.


By the use of one of firing the leopard Zugrohrkanone could a number of ammunition types. So as armor-piercing stood kinetic energy projectile , the APDS-ammunition (Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot) are available, which from the 1980s through the fin-stabilized variant APDSFS-T (Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot, Fin-Stabilized-Tracer) was replaced.Usual for that time, as explosive ammunition was Quetschkopfgeschoss (HESH - High Explosive Squash Head) used, however, by the emergence of the bulkhead and composite armor by shaped charge ammunition - was replaced (HEAT High Explosive Anti Tank). Before the introduction of thermal imaging devices could also for battlefield illumination, "Illum" - rockets are fired. Furthermore, fog and were Canistermunition available. For each combat cartridge, there was no sharp practice ammunition and dummy warhead to practice the movements. Compared with the black combat ammunition this blue (Ub) or olive were labeled (Ex). The ammunition of the German battle tank was 60 cartridges, 55 cartridges later, for the main weapon, and 5000 shots for the secondary armament.


Leopard 1 MBT
Battle Tank
10-cylinder diesel engine MTU MB 838 Ca M-500
610 kW (830 PS) price 2200 min -1
Planetary gear ZF 4 HP 250 with four forward and two reverse gears
torsion bar spring mounted support roller drive
9543 mm
Overall width:
3370 mm
2764 mm
Ground clearance:
440 mm
Fording :
2250 mm, 4000 mm with preparation
Grave-border capacity:
3000 mm
Climbing ability:
1150 mm
Climbing ability :
60 %
30 %
Combat weight:
42 400 kg
Maximum road:
65 km / h
Amount of fuel:
985 liters, two tanks of 470/490 liters and a discharge container with 25 liters
Driving range:
562 km road, 386 km easy terrain, 246 km heavy terrain
L7A3-Zugrohrkanone, 2 MG3
55-60 cartridges for BK, 5000 cartridges for the two MG3

Operational experience

Denmark put the Leopard 1, a first user country in the fight. Within the framework of the United Nations Protection Force , the main battle tank that served as support vehicles in the Danish quota. During the operation Bøllebank it first came to fighting.

Canada sent a company of the Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) , equipped with Leopard C2 with and without armor, two mountains tanks and two mobile workshops, to Afghanistan.  Panzer Group to protect convoys and Canada assumed Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT) and other light vehicles equipped only with support organizations. The first tanks reached Kandahar mid October 2006. On 2 December 2006, the tanks were put into service in Kandahar, making Canada the first time since the Korean War, sent tanks into a war zone. For the first time since that time Canadian tanks fired their guns from the enemy, as the following day a rocket attack by the Taliban responded with fire.Also in use is the Canadian version of the pioneering roof tank 6 and Canada since August 2007 Leopard 2A6M CAN.


The production of the Leopard was settled in contract sections. About 2,700 companies involved in the construction. These included the Blohm & Voss AG, MTU Friedrichshafen, ZF AG, Rheinmetall GmbH, the Wegmann GmbH & Co., AEG-Telefunken, the Drägerwerke that Anton Piller KG . KG and the Eberspächer Except in Germany, and the Leopard 1 in Australia , Belgium , Brazil , Chile , Denmark ,Greece , Italy , Canada , the Netherlands , Norway and Turkey used. Based on the Leopard Mountain - and armored engineering are in Australia, Brazil, Chile, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Canada, used the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Turkey.

To ensure the development of the weapon system and the Leopard family vehicle on a common basis, in 1969 by Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway, the Leoben-Community ( Leo -pard ben utzende States) founded. In several working groups divided and controlled by a steering committee, the objectives of simplifying the supply to develop the weapon system together to simplify the repair, adjust the Leopard family on upcoming threats, and reduce costs.

Leopard pilot series

The pilot series corresponded to the basic form of the series as of yet. Compared with the series production possessed the 50 copies of a square loading hatch without a ring, a sloping back wall of the tower storage basket and another MOUNTINGS the AA machine gun.Also a striking detail of the pre-series was the centrally mounted on the gun shield shooting lights and the protection of canvas. The tool holders on the sides as well as the shape of the tool box and rear outboard station also experienced changes.


The production of the first Construction lot with 400 vehicles extended from September 1965 to July 1966. The basic equipment consisted of cast towers, conventional fire control, turret rangefinder (TEM) 2A, Turmrundblickperiskop (TRP) 2A, IR target device B171 V, Tower Riflescope (TZF) 1A, electro hydraulic gun laying system without a weapon stabilization, square outboard station, IR night vision equipment for the driver and commander and a connector Caterpillar D139 E2 chain with fixed upholstery. Shooting the lights was installed on the left side of the gun shield.
The Lot 2 joined seamlessly and ended in 1967 with the production of 600 Leopard tanks. The changes included a round outboard station, a handle on the tool box in the rear, supporting triangles for the ladders to the tower, a gutter at the bottom of the turret rear and a Geschossabweiser for the turret ring and mounts for the side skirts. The third contract section was followed in July 1967 bis August 1968. The equipment did not change, however, were Heißösen welded for loading. Leopard 16 from the lot went to Belgium . The total number amounted to 484 tanks. Contract Section 4 also followed seamlessly and ended in February 1970. The total number was 361 pieces. The changes included a folding dive shaft, improved wheels and Treibradkränze. The Abgasgrätings were executed from this contract section without vertical struts as extruded profiles.

Leopard A1

In the years 1975 to 1977, all tanks of the lot were subjected to a 1-4 upgrading and adapted to the fifth contract section. For example, all vehicles were equipped with a fortified tower on Gummieelementen applique armor and the armored gun shield additionally by a steel plate. Fitted with such equipment tanks were designated Leopard A1A1. With the approximation to the Leopard 1A4, the installation of the radio family SEM 80/90 and the passive night goal and monitoring device PZB 200 Leopard tanks as these are referred to 1 A1A4.Vehicles without PZB 200, but with SEM carried the A1A3 code.

Leopard A2

The production of the fifth contract section began in April 1972 and ended in May 1973. The building lot with the number increased to 232 tanks used for the replacement of the M48 A2 II Corps of the Bundeswehr. The changes included a thickening of the turret armor, a more powerful combustion air-filtration system, improved NBC filters, image intensifiers (BiV) night vision equipment for the driver and commander, weapon stabilization for gun laying system, thermal sleeve for the gun connector Caterpillar D 640A with removable chain pads and lateral side skirts. With tow ropes were also introduced to replace with a length of five meters to the three-meter ropes. The tower houses a guard has been fitted to the crew with activated weapon stabilization to protect against the movement of the inner board canon parts.

Leopard A3

The last of the lot 5 110 vehicles were manufactured, May 1973 bis November 1973. The changes included a welded elongated tower construction in Scotland. The internal volume increased by 1.5 cubic meters. The loader has received a rotating and tilting angle mirror.The installation of a Nahverteidigungssystems was omitted due to the high self-harm. With the end of the Cold War, the A3 was taken out of inventory and sold.

Leopard A4

The delivery of the contract section 6, starting in August 1974 and ended in March 1976 with a stock of 250 vehicles. The change consisted in an integrated fire control system for commander and gunner. These included an improved optical rangefinder (EMES 12A1), a PERI R12 for the commander with IR night vision channel and improved fire control. With the A4 delivery to the armed forces was completed. All models have been upgraded with a PZB 200 (passive target and monitoring device). In 1989, 235 tanks of the lot taken out of the herd and A3 changed back. 150 tanks went to Turkey, 75 in Greece and 10 in Denmark. Other copies were on the shooting ranges of the Bundeswehr as hard targets or were demilitarized delivered to museums.

Leopard 1A5

With the combat efficiency of 1339 Leopard from October 1986 to September 1992 from the construction lots 1 to 4, which in 1225 from the collection of the German army, changed the name to 1A5. Below are all Leopard added to the number 1. The upgrade included an improvement in the first hit out of the movement and a shorter reaction time with a new fire control system EMES 18 (adapted FLA the Leopard 2 with stabilized main scope (HZF) and laser rangefinder, but without Waffennachführanlage (WNA)), improved NBC protection , an angle mirror wash for the driver, and a reinforced Schwingarmlagerungen Feldjustieranlage. Another change was the second preparation for receiving the 120-mm main gun of the Leopard The A5 were equipped with the new family of radios SEM 80/90, the term was extended to Leopard 1A5A1. With the Army structure 5 from 1994 737 Leopard 1A5 remained until decommissioned in 2003 held by the German army. All tanks will be, according to the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe demilitarized, scrapped or sold. This operation runs in the Thuringian Rockensußra where Demilitarisierungsstelle for military equipment.

Leopard 1A6

The 1A6 is a feasibility study of the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement for antitank fighting vehicles from the year 1986. The study Panzerkampfwagen 90 two test vehicles were built with different Rüstständen that. VT-2 and VT-5 The VT-2 was compared with the VT-5, a tower add-on armor on the roof to reduce the IR signature of the chassis as well as a hard facing the hull front. Both experimental vehicle possessed a fire suppression system (BUA) for the battle space and the 120-mm weapon system. The VT-5 was however, a commander-PERI. The weight gain was 4.6 tonnes and 3.5 tonnes.
The project was created in 1987 after a trial period in the test site of 41, today's WTD 41, set by the proof of satisfiability.

Leopard 1 in the non-German forces


After the troops comparison in 1972 total between June 1976 and November 1978 were 90 Leopard to Australia delivered. They corresponded to the Leopard 1A3 on the state of the 5th Construction lot. Additionally, the vehicles through a Tropical Kit (improved cooling of the motors), hydraulic stops, side toolboxes, fire control SABCA and a dozer. In the 1990s were the tanks and modernized with air conditioning, a Mine-clearing and the stealth system ( Mobile Camouflage System (MCS) ) of the same Swedish company Barracuda Barracuda Company equipped. The unit designation was 1AS1 Leopard.


Originally 334 Leopard 1 from the contract sections 3 and 4, between May 1968 and March 1971, Belgium supplied. The tank also has decreed side tool boxes, a Tank Fire Control System (TFCS fire control system) and a thermal imaging device. Ten tanks are used for spare parts. Of the 324 Leopard 1 132 tanks were upgraded to Leopard 1A5 (BE) and used. The contract had a total of 360 million DM Besides the battle tank was of the Belgian armed forces and the cheetah used and bridge layers based on the Leopard first Of the armor quick bridge iguana equipped bridge layers correspond in appearance to the Brückenlegepanzer beaver , but differs by a higher carrying capacity (MLC 70) of the bridge, a reinforced tail boom and a modified support shield. The bridge and bridge layers were thus also of KMW and manufactured by MAN Mobile Bridges GmbH (since 2005 a subsidiary of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann).


From 1997 to 1999 Brazil purchased a total of 128 Leopard 1 of the Belgian armed forces, which were delivered in three lots. Before delivery, these vehicles have been overhauled by the Belgian company SABIEX. 2006 between the German and the Brazilian government, a purchase agreement was signed more than 250 Leopard 1A5 Parkas. The tanks since 2009 by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann repaired and modernized. In addition to the delivery of this battle tanks 30 copies are provided as spare parts. Furthermore, the delivery of seven mountains tanks, four armored Quick bridges, four pioneer tanks and five tanks driving school is provided so that after planning by 2012 a total of 200 battle tanks and 50 support vehicles will be delivered.


Chile bought in 1998 a total of 202 Leopard 1 of the Dutch armed forces, which were to replace the partially derived from the World War II tanks of the Chilean army. Before delivery all tanks were equipped with the PZB 200th. In 2009, 30 tanks to Ecuador sold. In addition to the main battle tank uses Chile's pioneering tank roof, the tank Quick bridge beaver and a Faschinenträger on Leopard 1 chassis.


Ecuador has acquired 30 units Leopard 1V worth 55 million U.S. dollars from Chile.


After a comparison test between the Chieftain and the leopard from December 1967 to May 1968, the decision Koninklijke Landmachtend of 1968 for the purchase of 400 Leopard 1 main battle tanks with a total value of 550 million marks the beginning of delivery in October 1969 increased this number to a total of 468 vehicles. The cars were modified with Caterpillar D139 Type E2 and side tool boxes on the status of the 4th Construction lot. The upgrades included an add-on armor for the tower, a fire control system manufacturer Honeywell AFSL-2 (NL), laser range finder, an optical space image rangefinder, an electronic fire control, smoke grenade (NL), a machine-gun mount for Dutch machine gun and a weapon stabilization system from Honeywell. 170 Leopard 1V went negotiations with Greece and 202 in Chile. Belgium as well as the translated Netherlands on the antiaircraft cannon tank Cheetah, commonly under the name Cheetah .


In 1968 gave Norway a contract for the procurement of 78 Leopard-1 main battle tanks. The vehicles met the contract section 4, however, were slightly modified. The modification consisted of a different type of chain D 640 A, wider wheels, a hatch securing the tower and a thermal sleeve for the pipe. Between 1991 and 1994 there was a delivery of an additional 92 Leopard 1A5 from the holdings of the Bundeswehr. Of the total of 170 Leopard 1 (NO) have been upgraded to the level 111 A5.


Total received Italy 920 Leopard 1 at the level of the lots 4 and 5 200 vehicles were built by Krauss-Maffei and delivered in the years 1971 (92 battle tanks) and 1972 (108 battle tanks). From 1974 made ​​OTO Melara two sections, the first since 1974 over 400 vehicles, the second one between 1981 and 1983. The Italian Leopard tanks were delivered to the A2 standard and not until 1995, increased combat capability. 1995 bought the Italian Army 127 A5-towers of the Armed Forces, which were used to convert the 120 tanks version A2 A5 version. The last A2 Leopard was completed in 2003 out of service. End of 2008, followed by the last A5. Moreover, Italy has 64 Beavers (by OTO Melara produced) and 137 Recovery Tank 2 (69 by Krauss-Maffei and 68 by OTO Melara) and 40 armored engineering (12 Krauss-Maffei and 28 by OTO Melara).


The 120 Leopard 1A3 (DK) Denmark reflect the state of the fifth construction lot. They were the only vehicles with factory-installed fire control EMES 18/TIS. From February 1976 to August 1978, the tanks were delivered. Between 1992 and 1994 a second lot was aligned with a quantity of 110 vehicles of the Bundeswehr stocks. All Leopard 1 have been converted to the booth A5  and have since been replaced by 57 Leopard 2A5DK.


Canada is another NATO partner that uses the Leopard first The 114 vehicles comply with Rüststand A3 of the fifth construction lot.Furthermore, given the vehicle a cable drum for telecommunication cables, a bracket for 20 snow grippers on the bow plate, a laser rangefinder, the electronic fire control SABCA, a wind sensor on the turret roof, PZB 200, a built-in white light illuminators instead of the left E-knife outlook, an angled mirror wash for the driver, increased smoke grenade launcher for firing explosive device, a hitch for a snow plow and Belgian machine guns. Deliveries began in July 1978 and ended in June 1979. This order was carried out by Krauss-Maffei and MAK. In 2000, a combat efficiency followed by Canada. The changes included the purchase of 123 A5-towers for installation in existing tanks, nine towers for training purposes. In addition, the increased firepower by improved cannon installation of fire control EMES 18, and a Mexas additional armor. Overall, 66 Leopard 1C2 are on duty. The visit is scheduled until 2015.

As part of the military aid received Turkey between September 1982 and December 1983 a total of 77 Leopard 1 A3 on the state of the fifth construction lot. The changes included an AFS fire control system with laser rangefinder, a PZB 200 and the Tropical kit. With the changes in the armed forces in 1990 to armed to 1992 A4 sold to Turkey. A total of 397 Leopard 1 were sent to Turkey, of which 320 are held by the armed forces.


From February 1983 to April 1984 was Greece under the symbol 1GR1 the last 106 Leopard tanks from the tape. They represented the Turkish configuration. The Netherlands gave her another 170 Leopard 1V, Germany A3 3, 75 and 2 A5 A5 (NL) from the collections of the Bundeswehr. The total number stood at 356th With the introduction of all Leopard 2 Leopard 1A5 and 25 Leopard 1 from sample GR1 remain in service. All other copies.

Tanks based on the Leopard 1 tank

By General Dietrich Willikens the Leopard chassis developed into a multi-purpose vehicle. Instrumental in the development, he persuaded the leadership believes that education, care and lower costs of production are economic. Thus, on the basis of the Leopard 1 tank a driving school that was launched bridges beaver , the anti-aircraft cannon tank Cheetah , the Bergepanzer 2 and the Badger armored engineering developed. The driving school Leopard 1 tank carries a cab, which can always be replaced with a tower. To simulate the rotating tower, a 8.5 ton ballast ring and a fake gun was installed in the car. A total of 60 cabins have been sold to the armed forces. For the Dutch Marine Corps by Alvis Moelv four Leopard 1 was to Beach Armoured Recovery Vehicle (BARV) rebuilt - Samson (BARV1), Hercules (BARV2), Goliath (BARV3) and titanium (BARV4). They are 7.65 meters long, 3.25 meters wide and 3.35 meters high at 0.44 meters clearance. The weight is 42.5 tonnes. They are used in amphibious landing operations of HNLMS Rotterdam and HNLMS Johan de Witt for salvaging damaged vehicles near the shore.
Not continued, however, the tri-national project howitzer 155-1 from 1973 to 1986. The medium artillery rocket system Wegmann launchers Rocket System 80 on Leopard chassis was in favor of the wheel development LARS also not realized.
The weapon system was initiated in 1991 Panther, a Trilateralentwicklung between Germany, France and Great Britain, was closed in 1993. Sun was the German model on the chassis an extendable 12-meter boom with the starting device for the missile PARS 3 LR and the optoelectronic target and reconnaissance system Osiris . Was also not implemented the project, launched in 1997 for an observation based on the armored artillery Leopard 1A5. Without main weapon and equipped with the radio equipment SEM 80/90, a GPS receiver and artillery fire control systems for specific computer this configuration should the observation tank artillery on the M113 replace.
Only the prototype status also reached the 1999-built Leopard 1 AMCV Armoured Mine Clearing Vehicle , a Norwegian mine clearing, tested in the KFOR deployment. He is like the working principle of the German boar , but has the British Aardvark demining as well as electronic and explosive Minenräumequipment. More unreacted prototypes / studies were leopards FlaRakPz Roland , Leopard MKPV (armored Feldstraße device), Leopard MKPV (armored mine-layer), the pioneer of armored machine , a Flapanzer with Otomatic-76/62-Flakturm (76 mm) of Oto Melara , the Leopard 1 ADATS (similar to the Panther project), the leopard 1/Gepard PRTL (Dutch Cheetah alternative) and a version with GIAT-155-mm-tower.