Friday, August 24, 2012

Puma IFV

The Cougar is an armored , the armor of the German company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) and Rheinmetall Land Systems is developed (RLS) and produced. Shall be performed by the Project System & Management GmbH (PSM), a joint venture of KMW and RLS. The Puma is the German army are procured in a total of 350 vehicles (originally were scheduled 410) and the armored Marder replace. The first "cougars" were held on 6 Delivered in December 2010. The first units, which are used in the units will be available, will be delivered from mid-2013.

Test vehicle mobility-VS2 with weight simulators in the 41st WTD The IFV has since 2008, six rollers
Main Features
3 (driver, commander, gunner) + 6 (infantry section)
7,40 m
3.43 m Protection level A
3.70 m protection level C
ca 3,10 m
Protection level A = 31.45 tons
protection level C = 41 tonnes
up to 43 tonnes
Main armament
1 × 30-mm MK 30-2/ABM
Secondary armament
1 × 5.56 mm MG 4
explosive grenade launcher 76 mm
Protection systems
modular, Verbundpanzerung ( AMAP )
Abstandsaktive Systeme
Mine protection force
STANAG 4569 Level IVa, 10-kg antitank mine and EFP mine with chain
V10 892 High Power Density of MTU Friedrichshafen
800 kW (1088 hp)
Top speed
70 km / h (road)
Power / weight
25 kW / ton (Protection Level A)
19.5 kW / ton (Protection Level C)
600 km (road)


Project planning and implementation

The origins of the Puma goes back to the year 1996. It is based on the Project New Armored Platform (NGP), which proposed a universal platform for various weapons systems. Here, since the armored personnel should have the same protection as the armored battle tank, showed first concept studies for the NGP SPz a combat weight of 55 - to 72 tons. Through the tight budget situation in 1998, it was clear that the co-evolution of three systems (MBT, IFV, FlaPz) would not be realized. Thus, on 26 February 1998 approved the development of the armored personnel carrier and the tactical plan New armored approved (NeSPz), which temporarily under the project name Panther and hedgehogs was performed. In 2000, expressed the inspector of the army , the idea that about 1,000 copies of a new armored personnel should be produced in the 50-ton class.
The situation changed completely when, after the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 armed forces were preferred with ability to transport by air. By requiring Lufttransportierbarkeit the new IFV in the Airbus A400M air transport weight was set at 32 tons. Nevertheless, it was noted in the plans for a new infantry fighting vehicle. After procuring a uprated combat Combat Vehicle 90 was rejected, could finally after several crisis meetings in the fall of 2002, the development agreement with the company PSM (originally System PANTHER & Management GmbH , later Projekt System & Management GmbH ) are contracted for a living in Germany armored.  The contract included the delivery of a Gesamtsystemdemonstrators (GSD) in December 2005. Apart from the GSD in the Treaty three Teilsystemdemonstratoren (TSD) for arms / ammunition, and mobility and protection are included. They serve as proof of the satisfiability of the project compared to the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB).
In December 2004, the BWB signed a contract to supply five early pre-production vehicles, with an option for 405 more armored. The pre-production vehicles were delivered as planned in 2006. They are used to the Army Technical departments , BWB demonstrating the viability of the system and identify weaknesses.
The option should be on 8 November 2007, confirmed postponed, but due to technical problems in the year 2009. Thus, in the sixth Progress report on the project infantry fighting vehicles (IFV) PUMA of the Federal Ministry of Defence of 6 May 2009 reported problems with the drive train and the drive. Despite serious reservations, the Federal Court approved the budget committee of the Bundestag, the order of the armored and the contract was signed at the beginning of July 2009. A total of 405 units were ordered at a total cost of 3.1 billion euros.
On 11 July 2012 an amending treaty between manufacturers and the MoD was signed, providing for a reduction in the number of units to 350.
Due to technical issues, however, by 2012, initially only ten Puma delivered at which tested the viability and should be improved where necessary. On 6 December 2010, the first two series of the Puma vehicles were handed over to the competent Federal Office for Defence Technology and Procurement for verification. The final delivery is still scheduled for the year 2020.

Puma as a platform

Unlike the NGP project, the Puma is not designed to provide a modular family of vehicles. Because the front engine and an interior volume of 10 cubic meters can based on the Puma but other combat vehicles are realized. So after the new procurement plan of the Bundeswehr further use as mountains, transport or antiaircraft tank is possible.
One of SAIC -led consortium had in the U.S. arms program GCV IFV one offered on the Puma-based vehicle. The GCV-fighting vehicle was designed for a crew of twelve soldiers and should like the NGP SPz have a total weight of about 50 tons, with a growth potential of more than 60 tons. It is armed with an unmanned turret with a 40-mm automatic cannon type was MK44 provided with "Super 40" cartridges, and a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun. production site should be the United States.  After the rejection of the concept SAIC filed a lawsuit Government Accountability Office, which was however rejected as unfounded.
The gearbox and the caterpillars of the Puma will also in the British Future Rapid Effect System can be used.


In addition to Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Rheinmetall Land Systems as prime contractor a number of other companies working on the project. These include auto flight (seats, fuel system), Diehl Remscheid (crawlers, drive wheels), the Dräger Safety (NBC protection system), ESW (generator onboard power supply, electric fans, gun laying system),Heckler and Koch , Kidde Deugra extinguishing systems, MTU Friedrichshafen (engine), Oerlikon Contraves, the Renk (gear), Rexxon (air conditioning), slip ring and apparatus and Carl Zeiss Optronics (optics).


The Puma is an armored personnel carrier with a remote controlled and crew-less tower, in its basic configuration with the future tactical air transport vehicles of the Bundeswehr, the Airbus A400M , airportable is. The crew consists of nine members, which are housed in an integrated battle space. It is divided into an infantry squad consisting of six soldiers and a group of leaders (GrpFhr), a Troop Commander Weapon System (TrpFhrWaSys) and driver (MKF) existing fixed vehicle crew. The infantry squad consists of the troop leader and five shooters. In exceptional circumstances, the Absitzstärke increases with the group leader to seven. The vehicle is then performed by the Troop Commander Weapon System (gunner).
The arrangement of the crew in the vehicle is a front left sitting behind the driver and the gunner. This serves the gun and sitting in front of the rotary beam of the tower. slip rings transmit the control signals. The group leader is sitting right next to the gunner and has its own sliding hatch. It supports the driver when driving the tank on the road. Due to the asymmetric arrangement of the tower on the left side of the vehicle, the group leader a direct view of the soldiers fighting in the back room and the squad leader.
In contrast to the Marder infantry squad soldiers sit with their backs against the outer walls. There are four soldiers sitting on the right and two soldiers on the left side. A central shelf under the tower serves as storage space for the equipment. As fire protection features of the battle space with a fire suppression system (BUA). Equipped with infrared detectors, the system deletes occurring fires in 150 milliseconds. The gaseous extinguishing agents DeuGen-N according to the manufacturer's safe. The entire interior is "mine safe" run and has no contact with the ground. A scheduled fight as soldiers for two in the partially open tailgate was discarded because of increased self-endangerment. The conventionally designed tailgate resulted in the expansion of the interior space and allowed a two-man hinged hatch on the roof, as well as improved protection at the rear. The squad leader has its own sliding door.

In addition to use in the armored infantry of the Puma is also a training and educational vehicle use. The opportunity as a platform for the Joint Fire Support Teams (JFST) of mechanized forces was in favor of the Boxer and discarded. Joint Fire Support Team are the composite system of artillery observers and advanced observers of the mortar and theForward Air Controller of the Air Force . Your job, the fire is the artillery , mortars and close air support to steer into the target.


Drive and drive

By a 10-cylinder compact engine of MTU Friedrichshafen with 800 kW of power and a six-speed gearbox HSWL 256 with electro-hydraulic control of adaptive Renk is one with the battle tank Leopard 2 similar mobility can be achieved. The driving tests with the mobility test vehicles showed, however, that an increase in capacity of 11 liters and a revision of the torque curve of the transmission is necessary. Were also revised the Kühlergrätings, which were moved to the upper bow plate.  The engine, its installation form, an Lresembles located to the right of the driver. The steering gear is mounted transversely in front of the driver.
For the first time in a tank of the Bundeswehr, the motor has a flywheel starter generator with a central power electronics with 170 kW rated power supply to the two electric cooling fans with 60 kW and the drive of the refrigerant compressor of the air conditioner. The 24-volt electrical system is fed from the power electronics via a bi-directional converter with up to 800 A, is started by the diesel engine from the vehicle battery.
For fire protection, the engine room of a fire extinguishing system of the company Deugra Kidde fire protection systems.
Another novelty compared to the marten is manufactured by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann decoupled hydropneumatic support roller drive.Thus, the entire suspension is only connected by means of rubber elements of the vehicle hull. This reduces structure-borne noise of 120  dBA to about 96 dBA and enables the crew a long stay in the vehicle. The suspension is with so-called "dropsy" realized (hydropneumatic springs) that produce compressible gas with the spring force. A temperature effect compensation system prevents effects of temperature changes in the gas springs on the drive properties. In contrast to a torsion bar suspension is compact and does not require this type of construction space on the vehicle floor. Similarly, the ground clearance is maintained at a constant 450 mm, irrespective of the level of protection. In addition, located in the drive carriers, the main fuel tanks. A central collection tank ensures continuous fuel supply.
As a caterpillar uses the Puma a steel tube construction with rubber bearings and rubber tires cushion the company Diehl . Because of the requirement of air transport the lightweight chain DLT 464D is 40% lighter than the track of the Leopard 1 , but has the same resistance. Originally planned with only five pairs of rollers on each side became clear during the driving tests that six wheels are necessary.


The armor of the Puma has a modular design, it has two levels of protection. It was designed so that it with the armor protection level A (airport able) to the future military transport aircraft Airbus A400M will be luftverlegbar. To the required tactical air transport weight of 31.45 to not exceed t, the equipment carried is limited to 1 t. In protection level A it is frontally against antitank hand (for example, the RPG-7 ) and medium caliber weapons (30 mm), all round against artillery fragments, and against heavy blast and projectile-forming mines protected (10 kg).
The protection level C (combat) is achieved with additional armor modules to be mounted. This includes the tower, bomblet -, mining, and front protection. The reinforced armor protection on the sides and the roof. In this way he is against anti-tank hand-and medium-caliber weapons and bomblets protected. Compared to the vehicles in the series preproduction protection level C are equipped with further drawn down side protection plates, which extend down to about the middle of the rollers.
The originally planned protection level B (rail transport) accounted for because of the Puma in protection level C meets the Bahnverlademaß. The Puma has NBC collective protection system from Dräger , additionally has an integrated AC sensor. The exhaust gases are mixed with fresh air, and at the stern ejected in order to reduce the infrared signature. Further infrared reduction is achieved by an appropriate camouflage.
The Puma is in addition with a soft kill system from EADS equipped. This multi-functional self-protection system (MUST) detects incoming rockets and disturbs their steering sensors. Moreover, according to the additional installation of a PSM is hard kill system possible.


The vehicle is equipped with an intercom traffic (BV) - equipped and radio. This includes the BV plant type 80/90/93 and a radio system with a SEM 80/90 (VHF) and a HRM 7400 (HF). Information processing of armored personnel is equipped with a command and weapons control system (FüWES). The system is to friend and foe, and integration with legacy systems of the Bundeswehr as FIST (facilities management, tactical), the concept of Future Soldier enable or control information system of the Army (FüInfoSys H).

Fire control and aiming equipment

The Puma had a tower at its demonstration independent stabilized main optics (PERI, RTWL-B). For groups and group leaders as well as a specially protected stabilized weapons optics (WAO) for the gunner Both manufactured by Carl Zeiss Optronics systems have a day vision channel, ATTICA thermal imager and laser rangefinder LDM 38th Pictures of the main optics can with a CCD camera are displayed on two displays for groups and group leaders. The periscope has four fields of view. For use in urban areas and in the vicinity of the group leader has a field of view of 60 ° × 45 °. For observing, identifying goals and three other fields of view up to 16-fold magnification available. Besides the optical digital output also has an optical channel, including laser eye protection. The determination to remove used Nd: YAG laser measures distances up to 40 kilometers to 5 meters exactly, with distances from 200 meters to be considered. When multiple echoes between first and last echo can be selected recovery. In addition, the observer during the day or night vision are shown information about tower position, distance, target, navigation and system data. Because the digital signal processing, the entire system is network-ready, allowing for integration with legacy systems of the Bundeswehr. The weapons optics in conjunction with the fire control system of the Puma allows the shooter to engage targets while driving.Overall, the WAO on a daylight CCD camera with zoom lens and three fields of view, according to the tactical requirements. The driver is equipped with a night vision device, and has a screen for the rear camera.


The armament of the infantry fighting consists of a primary and secondary weapons, including a fog Central and explosive grenade launcher. Machine cannon and machine guns are housed in fully automated tower. Sensors and actuators to monitor the function and the state of charge of the main weapon.

An innovation compared with the raccoon is the stabilization of the weapon and the " hunter-killer capability, "known by the battle tanks. If the commander with his periscope on an opponent, he hands over the target to the gunner. The tower is intended to automatically toward the target, and the gunner can not fight it, while the commander is looking for other targets.

Primary armament

The main armament is a 30-mm machine cannon of type MK 30-2/ABM , manufactured by Rheinmetall, which is eccentrically mounted right in the remote tower. It is a development of the MK30-2, even in the Austrian armored Ulan find Pizarro and the Spanish use. With machine gun armored vehicles can be combated (ABM) up to 3000 meters up to a distance of 2000 meters and the Air Burst munitions.The weapon can be used both in single as well as in high-speed continuous fire (200 rounds / min.) Be fired. It weighs 198 kg, and consists of the weapon housing, tube, Doppelgurtzuführer (DGZ) and return device. Because of the thermal stresses, the solid inner tube and the chamber are chrome plated. The elevation range is from -10 ° to +45 °.
Apart from armor-piercing APFSDS-T projectiles (arrow kinetic energy projectile with tracer) is also possible, a special KETF ammunition ( Kinetic Energy Time Fuze ), also known as the AHEAD is known ammunition shoot with. Manufacturing is the air burst ammunition from RWM Switzerland, as the manufacturer of the muzzle brake with measurement base (Oerlikon Contraves), a subsidiary of Rheinmetall Defence is. The ammunition allows the use against armored vehicles, helicopters, infantry and fortified positions. The effect of the ammunition based on 162 cylindrical, each 1.24 gram tungsten subprojectiles which - are discharged to a precalculated flight time or before the finish - depending on the time setting. The individual projectiles are spin-stabilized and fly in a narrow cone toward the goal.The timing is carried out only at the exit of the tube in the measuring base, after the muzzle velocity was measured. For heavily armored targets to use them without time adjustment.
The total is 400 rounds of ammo. A worm with 200 rounds magazine is housed in the turret rear. Missed is the main reservoir, can manually from above the reserve be recharged. A loading of the inside is not possible. By Doppelgurtzuführer the machine gun, both types of ammunition are fired in direct exchange. In the series configuration surrounding the gun tube support one  , which increases the probability of a hit in self and target movement.

Secondary armament

The secondary armament consists of the MG4 in caliber 5.56 mm. It is axially arranged and is due to the case ejection to the right and the supply of ammunition left, right of the main gun. Unlike the infantry version lacks this tower machine gun (TMG), the shoulder, the bipod and sight. The maximum engagement range is given as 1,000 meters. The ammunition is 1000 plus 1000 income surplus reserve.

For defense at close range (50 meters) of the Puma has an explosive grenade launcher (SKWA) in caliber 76 mm. It is mounted at the rear left of the vehicle and has a pivoting range of 90 ° to the rear of the vehicle. It is operated by the troop leader.
The smoke grenade launcher based on established systems. Thus, two groups of four arranged throw cups on the turret rear and can be triggered individually or jointly.
For tanks and helicopters, the Puma defense is in the German army with the missile Spike-LR  provided the German-Dutch-Israeli arms consortium Euro Spike GmbH. As a boot device is the weapon system MELLS (More Efficient Light role missile system) from the procurement project for the infantry. This will be adapted on the side of tower and has space for two missiles.

The concept of the Puma has been repeatedly criticized by the public, in part because of its high weight. The cougar can be expected only in the protection level A in the future military transport aircraft Airbus A400M to be transported. In order for three cougars which to provide the modules for the Protection Level C, an additional flight is required, whereby the cost of transportation is one-third higher than that of its predecessor, the marten . This is also the cost of the removal of the modules as well as for the restoration of the operational readiness. The effort and the necessary consideration in transport and planning, resulting from the higher weight, resembles more that of a battle tank.
Has also criticized the use of an axially parallel machine gun with a caliber 5.56 × 45 mm NATO . This is unprecedented and brings over conventional secondary armament in caliber 7.62 x 51 mm NATO ammunition benefits of standardization, but disadvantages in range and penetration.
Another criticism is the size of the tank. With a height of 3.10 meters towers over the Puma comparable earlier models by up to 10 centimeters. With a maximum width of 3.70 meters, it is also in contrast to developments of other countries that develop and deploy smaller armored.
The Puma, with its cost of around EUR 7 million per copy of the most expensive armored vehicles in the world. The high production costs are also partly responsible for the low numbers. It is likely that they will encounter because of the high price of the Puma in the international market with little interest and taking into consideration is, however, that the development costs on the unit price (expected 410 pieces) are allocated, what if more units no longer be the case. Traditional customers of Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Rheinmetall Land Systems as the Dutch army have against Puma and the CV9035 decided.